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Overview on Pilot-Scale Treatments and New and Innovative Technologies for Hospital Effluent

  • Marina Badia-FabregatEmail author
  • Isabel Oller
  • Sixto Malato
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 60)

Abstract

In this chapter, pilot-scale studies and some innovative lab-scale investigations on hospital wastewater (HWW) treatment are presented. Pilot-scale systems usually consist of a first biological treatment to remove organic matter, nutrients, and some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) followed by a physicochemical treatment to increase removal of PhACs and other micropollutants (MPs). Biological treatments are usually advanced treatments such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs), which allow longer residence time of microorganisms, and thus, more suitable conditions for the removal of micropollutants such as PhACs. Moreover, membranes also sanitize the effluent, retaining the pathogenic microorganisms and reducing release of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). On the other hand, ozonation and activated carbon (AC) are the most common alternatives chosen as a polishing step. Research is actively working on innovative treatments, such as photocatalysis, to reduce the treatment cost, which is the major drawback for implementation of dedicated (in situ) degradation treatments of PhACs in HWW.

Keywords

Advanced oxidation processes Hospital wastewater Membrane biological reactor Photocatalysis Pilot plants 

Abbreviations

AC

Activated carbon

AOP

Advanced oxidation processes

ARG

Antibiotic resistance genes

BOD

Biological oxygen demand

CAS

Conventional activated sludge

COD

Chemical oxygen demand

DGGE

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

DOC

Dissolved organic carbon

EDDS

Ethylenediamine-N,N′-dissucinic acid

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

GAC

Granulated activated carbon

HRT

Hydraulic residence time

HWW

Hospital wastewater

LC/MS

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

LYES

Lyticase Yeast Estrogen Screen

MBBR

Moving bed biofilm reactor

MBR

Membrane bioreactor

MLSS

Mixed liquor suspended solids

MPs

Micropollutants

MWW

Municipal wastewater

NDMA

N-nitrodimethylamine

NF

Nanofiltration

PAC

Powder activated carbon

PhACs

Pharmaceutically active compounds

qPCR

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction

RO

Reverse osmosis

SRT

Sludge residence time

WWTP

Wastewater treatment plant

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marina Badia-Fabregat
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Isabel Oller
    • 3
  • Sixto Malato
    • 3
  1. 1.Departament d’Enginyeria QuímicaUniversitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB)Bellaterra, BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Fundació CTM Centre TecnològicManresaSpain
  3. 3.CIEMAT-Plataforma Solar de AlmeríaTabernas, AlmeríaSpain

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