Water Supply and Demand in Slovakia

  • M. Fendeková
  • M. Zeleňáková
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 69)


The water supply in Slovakia is mostly assured from the public water supply systems based either on surface or on groundwater sources. Surface water sources are represented by water reservoirs or by direct water take-off from the surface streams. As groundwater sources, either wells or springs can be utilized. There are 295 water reservoirs in Slovakia, 32 of them are regularly evaluated within the quantitative water management surface water balance. Eight water reservoirs were constructed until now for drinking water supply purposes; more than 200 small water reservoirs serve mostly for irrigation. The amount of 247.5 millions of m3, which makes 7.85 m3 s−1, was abstracted from the surface water sources in 2015. The main economic sectors using the surface water are industry, public drinking water supply and irrigation. The amount of water abstraction from the groundwater sources is generally higher than from the surface water. The total amount of 325.7 millions of m3 (10.332 m3 s−1) was abstracted from groundwater sources in 2015. The number of inhabitants supplied with water from the public water supply sources has been increasing steadily, reaching the number of 4.7853 million (88.3%) of inhabitants of Slovakia. The number of supplied municipalities reached 2,380 with the share of 82.4% on the total number of municipalities of Slovakia. However, trend of the water consumption, both total and specific for private household, is declining in the long-term scale, from 195.5 L capita−1 day−1 in 1990 to 77.3 L capita−1 day−1 in 2015. The quality of drinking water from the public water supply systems has been showing a high level in the long-term period. Slovakia does not have any problem with a disease associated with the drinking water from public water supply systems. The development of public sewerage systems lags behind that of public water supplies. In 2015, totally 1,044 municipalities had the public sewerage system in place. This makes only 36.2% of the total number of 2,890 municipalities in Slovakia.


Connection to public sewerage systems Surface and groundwater abstraction Water demand Water supply 


  1. 1.
    Lieskovská Z (2016) Environment of the Slovak Republic in focus. Ministry of Environment of the SR, Slovak Environmental Agency, Bratislava, Banská Bystrica, p 64Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Červeňan M (2016) Banskoštiavnická vodohospodárska sústava – najvýznamnejšia technická pamiatka Slovenska. Vodohospodársky spravodajca 43:7–8. (in Slovak)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ružičková E (2000) Začiatky zásobovania obyvateľov Slovenska podzemnou vodou. Vodohospodársky spravodajca 43:8–9. (in Slovak)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Resolution no. 496/2010 Coll. which amends Slovak Government Resolution No. 354/2006 Coll. defining requirements on water for human consumption and control of the water quality for the human consumptionGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Slovak Water Management Enterprise (2015) Annual report. Banská Štiavnica, SlovakiaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lovásová Ľ, Gápelová V, Podolinská J, Malovová J, Ľupták Ľ, Melová K, Škoda P, Liová S, Síčová B, Staňová J, Fabišiková M, Pospíšilová I (2016) Water management balance of the Slovak Republic. Water management balance of surface water amount in 2015. SHMÚ Bratislava, BratislavaGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Abaffy D, Lukáč M, Liška M (1995) Dams in Slovakia. T.R.T. Médium, Bratislava, p 103Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ministry of Environment of the SR, Bratislava, Slovak Environmental Agency, Banska Bystrica (1995–2015) Reports on environment of the Slovak Republic.
  9. 9.
    Belan M, Čaučík P, Lehotová D, Leitmann Š, Molnár Ľ, Možiešiková K, Slivová V (2016) Water management balance of the Slovak Republic. Water management balance of groundwater amount in 2015. SHMÚ Bratislava, BratislavaGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Resolution of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic no 636/2004 Coll. on requirements on raw water quality and monitoring of water quality in public waterworksGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Natural SciencesComenius University in BratislavaBratislavaSlovakia

Personalised recommendations