Hydrogeochemistry and Quality Assessment of Groundwater Under Some Central Nile Delta Villages, Egypt

  • Zenhom E. SalemEmail author
  • Gamal Elsaiedy
  • Abdelaziz ElNahrawy
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 73)


The target of this work is to assess the impact of the human activities on the hydrochemistry and quality of the groundwater under Nile Delta villages. Sixteen groundwater samples were collected during 2016. Hydrochemical analyses including major and trace elements were done. Spatial distribution of the element concentrations according to WHO guidelines, WQI (drinking water quality index), and statistical analysis was used for assessment. The sampled groundwater showed variable quality from one village to another and was classified into three clusters. Cluster A is characterized by higher concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), potassium, magnesium, sodium, calcium, sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate, Mn, Zn, P, NH4, Ba, and unfit WQI values. Low water quality of this sample is related to the effect of El-Gharbia main drain and seawater intrusion. Cluster B included samples 4, 8, 11, and 15 and had the moderately mean ion concentrations and higher concentrations of Fe, Sr, and Si compared to the other two clusters. The latter cluster major ion concentration arrangement is sodium > calcium and chloride > bicarbonate. WQI of this cluster varies from poor, very poor to unfit.

Samples 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, and 14 belong to cluster C which had the lowest ion concentrations and dominated by Ca > Na > Mg and HCO3 > Cl ion concentration arrangement. WQI of most of these samples is good. Undesirable concentrations of arsenic and ammonia are indications of direct infiltration from septic tanks and/or seepage from the drains. Finally, water treatment should be done before usage of groundwater from under the Nile Delta villages because of human-induced contamination.


Nile Delta Rural groundwater contamination Water quality index (WQI) 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zenhom E. Salem
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gamal Elsaiedy
    • 2
  • Abdelaziz ElNahrawy
    • 1
  1. 1.Geology Department, Faculty of ScienceTanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  2. 2.Ministry of Environmental AffairsCairoEgypt

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