Advertisement

Safe Drinking Water? Effect of Wastewater Inputs and Source Water Impairment and Implications for Water Reuse

  • Susan D. RichardsonEmail author
  • Cristina Postigo
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 44)

Abstract

The elimination of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) during conventional wastewater treatment is not complete, and therefore, different amounts of these compounds are continuously released via wastewater effluents into the aquatic environment. This constitutes a major issue for water reuse, because these compounds can undergo transformation in the environment or during disinfection if reclaimed water is used for drinking water production. Different emerging contaminants, e.g., perfluorinated compounds, pharmaceuticals, antibacterials, plasticizers, and preservatives, and transformation products, which are in some cases more toxic than original compounds, have been occasionally found in finished drinking waters. The present chapter reviews the CECs detected in drinking water and the disinfection by-products generated by different CECs present in the aquatic environment. Moreover, the potential toxicologic effects that these pollutants and their transformation products pose for human health are also reviewed. Levels of these compounds in treated waters, and therefore exposure, could be reduced by the use of advanced removal technologies.

Keywords

Chlorination Contaminants of emerging concern DBPs De facto reuse Disinfection by-products Drinking water Water reuse 

Abbreviations

BDCM

Bromodichloromethane

BPA

Bisphenol A

CCL

Contaminant candidate list

CEC

Contaminants of emerging concern

DBP

Disinfection by-product

DDT

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

DOC

Dissolved organic carbon

E2

17β-Estradiol

EC50

Half maximal effective concentration

EDDP

2-Ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine

EE2

17α-Ethinyl estradiol

EFSA

European Food Safety Authority

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

GSTT1

Glutathione S-transferase theta-1

GSTZ1

Glutathione S-transferase zeta-1

GWRS

Groundwater Replenishment System

HAA

Haloacetic acid

LDPE

Low density polyethylene

LOEC

Lowest observed effect concentration

MDA

3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine

MDEA

3,4-Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine

MDMA

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine or Ecstasy

MF

Microfiltration

MTBE

Methyl tert-butyl ether

MX

Mutagen X (3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone)

N-DBPs

Nitrogen containing disinfection by-products

NDMA

N-Nitrosodimethylamine

NF

Nanofiltration

PET

Polyethylene terephthalate

PFCs

Perfluorinated compounds

PFCAs

Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates

PFHpA

Perfluoroheptanoic acid

PFHxA

Perfluorohexanoic acid

PFHxS

Perfluorohexane sulfonate

PFOA

Perfluorooctanoic acid

PFOS

Perfluorooctane sulfonate

PFPeA

Perfluoropentanoic acid

PFSA

Perfluoroalkyl sulfonate

PTFE

Polytetrafluoroethylene or Teflon®

PVC

Polyvinylchloride

REACH

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals

RO

Reverse osmosis

TCA

1,1,1-Trichloroethane

THC

(±)-11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol

THM

Trihalomethane

References

  1. 1.
    Grant SB, Saphores JD, Feldman DL, Hamilton AJ, Fletcher TD, Cook PLM, Stewardson M, Sanders BF, Levin LA, Ambrose RF, Deletic A, Brown R, Jiang SC, Rosso D, Cooper WJ, Marusic I (2012) Taking the “waste” out of “wastewater” for human water security and ecosystem sustainability. Science 337(6095):681–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vörösmarty CJ, McIntyre PB, Gessner MO, Dudgeon D, Prusevich A, Green P, Glidden S, Bunn SE, Sullivan CA, Liermann CR, Davies PM (2010) Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature 467(7315):555–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fatta-Kassinos D, Kalavrouziotis IK, Koukoulakis PH, Vasquez MI (2011) The risks associated with wastewater reuse and xenobiotics in the agroecological environment. Sci Total Environ 409(19):3555–3563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Norton-Brandão D, Scherrenberg SM, Van Lier JB (2013) Reclamation of used urban waters for irrigation purposes – a review of treatment technologies. J Environ Manage 122:85–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    National Research Council (NRC) (2012) Water reuse: potential for expanding the Nation’s water supply through reuse of municipal wastewater. The National Academies Press, Washington, http://goo.gl/GvBGQq. Accessed Mar 2015
  6. 6.
    Scott CA, Zarazúa JA, Levine G (2000) Urban-wastewater reuse for crop production in the water-short Guanajuato River Basin, Mexico. Research report 41, International Water Management Institute, Colombo, p 35. http://goo.gl/PsZ22Y. Accessed Mar 2015
  7. 7.
    Tal A (2006) Seeking sustainability: Israel’s evolving water management strategy. Science 313(5790):1081–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Plumlee MH, López-Mesas M, Heidlberger A, Ishida KP, Reinhard M (2008) N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) removal by reverse osmosis and UV treatment and analysis via LC-MS/MS. Water Res 42(1–2):347–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Daughton CG, Ternes TA (1999) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change? Environ Health Perspect 107(SUPPL 6):907–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fono LJ, Kolodziej EP, Sedlak DL (2006) Attenuation of wastewater-derived contaminants in an effluent-dominated river. Environ Sci Technol 40(23):7257–7262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Benotti MJ, Trenholm RA, Vanderford BJ, Holady JC, Stanford BD, Snyder SA (2009) Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in US drinking water. Environ Sci Technol 43(3):597–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Thurman EM, Zaugg SD, Barber LB, Buxton HT (2002) Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999–2000: a national reconnaissance. Environ Sci Technol 36(6):1202–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Richardson SD, Ternes TA (2011) Water analysis: emerging contaminants and current issues. Anal Chem 83(12):4614–4648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Duirk SE, Lindell C, Cornelison CC, Kormos J, Ternes TA, Attene-Ramos M, Osiol J, Wagner ED, Plewa MJ, Richardson SD (2011) Formation of toxic iodinated disinfection by-products from compounds used in medical imaging. Environ Sci Technol 45(16):6845–6854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Richardson SD, Postigo C (2011) Drinking water disinfection by-products. In: Barceló D (ed) Emerging organic contaminants and human health, vol 20, Handbook of environmental chemistry. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 93–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Krasner SW, Mitch WA, McCurry DL, Hanigan D, Westerhoff P (2013) Formation, precursors, control, and occurrence of nitrosamines in drinking water: a review. Water Res 47(13):4433–4450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Krasner SW, Sclimenti MJ, Mitch W, Westerhoff P, Dotson A (2007) Wastewater and algal derived N-DBPs. In: AWWA annual conference and exposition, ACE 2007, Toronto. pp 345–354Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Krasner SW, Westerhoff P, Chen B, Rittmann BE, Amy G (2009) Occurrence of disinfection byproducts in United States wastewater treatment plant effluents. Environ Sci Technol 43(21):8320–8325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Plewa MJ, Wagner ED (eds) (2009) Mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of disinfection by-products. Water Research Foundation, DenverGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Plewa MJ, Wagner ED, Muellner MG, Hsu KM, Richardson SD (2008) Comparative mammalian cell toxicity of N-DBPs and C-DBPs. In: Karanfil T, Krasner SW, Westerhoff P, Xie Y (eds) Disinfection by-products in drinking water: occurrence, formation, health effects and control, vol 995, ACS symposium series. American Chemical Society, Washington, pp 36–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Richardson SD, Plewa MJ, Wagner ED, Schoeny R, DeMarini DM (2007) Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research. Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res 636(1–3):178–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chu W, Gao N, Yin D, Krasner SW (2013) Formation and speciation of nine haloacetamides, an emerging class of nitrogenous DBPs, during chlorination or chloramination. J Hazard Mater 260:806–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Richardson SD, Ternes TA (2014) Water analysis: emerging contaminants and current issues. Anal Chem 86(6):2813–2848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dresel PE, Rose AW (2010) Chemistry and origin of oil and gas well brines in Western Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4th ser. Open-file report OFOG 10–01.0, p 48. http://goo.gl/hQKny8. Accessed Mar 2015
  25. 25.
    Hayes T (2009) Sampling and analysis of water streams associated with the development of Marcellus Shale gas – final report. Prepared for Marcellus Shale Coalition, p 249. http://goo.gl/wOX7Pn. Accessed Mar 2015
  26. 26.
    Wilson JM, Van Briesen JM (2013) Source water changes and energy extraction activities in the Monongahela river, 2009–2012. Environ Sci Technol 47(21):12575–12582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    VanBriessen JM (2013) Potential drinking water effects of bromide discharges from coal-fired electric power plants. Report to Sierra Club in response to EPA’s proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) regulation. http://goo.gl/L8uFn8. Accessed Mar 2015
  28. 28.
    Meij R (1999) Mass balance study, presented at IEA Trace Element Workshop, University of WarwickGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Frank SM (2011) Calcium bromide chemical additive sample results. Calcium bromide performance trial February 7 to 12, 2011. Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Canonsburg. NPDES Permit No PA0005011 Conemaugh Generating Station, Canonsburg, PA. Letter report submitted to PA DEP southwest region, Pittsburgh, PA, 10 Mar 2011Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    American Water Works Association (AWWA) (2013) Formal comments of the AWWA on the effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the steam electric power generating point source category. Water Docket EPA-HQ-OW-2009-0819-4478. Washington, DC, 20 Sept 2013Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Antoniou MG, de la Cruz AA, Dionysiou DD (2005) Cyanotoxins: new generation of water contaminants. J Environ Eng 131(9):1239–1243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Merel S, Walker D, Chicana R, Snyder S, Baurès E, Thomas O (2013) State of knowledge and concerns on cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxins. Environ Int 59:303–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) (1998) Basic information about disinfection byproducts in drinking water: total trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, bromate, and chlorite. http://goo.gl/UxC00X. Accessed Mar 2015
  34. 34.
    Plewa MJ, Wagner ED, Richardson SD, Thruston AD Jr, Woo YT, McKague AB (2004) Chemical and biological characterization of newly discovered iodoacid drinking water disinfection byproducts. Environ Sci Technol 38(18):4713–4722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Richardson SD, Fasano F, Ellington JJ, Crumley FG, Buettner KM, Evans JJ, Blount BC, Silva LK, Waite TJ, Luther GW, McKague AB, Miltner RJ, Wagner ED, Plewa MJ (2008) Occurrence and mammalian cell toxicity of iodinated disinfection byproducts in drinking water. Environ Sci Technol 42(22):8330–8338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Savitz DA, Singer PC, Hartmann KE et al (2005) Drinking water disinfection by-products and pregnancy outcome. AWWA Research Foundation, Denver, CO, p 242. http://goo.gl/qMPSNm. Accessed Mar 2015
  37. 37.
    Waller K, Swan SH, DeLorenze G, Hopkins B (1998) Trihalomethanes in drinking water and spontaneous abortion. Epidemiology 9(2):134–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wei X, Wang S, Zheng W, Wang X, Liu X, Jiang S, Pi J, Zheng Y, He G, Qu W (2013) Drinking water disinfection byproduct iodoacetic acid induces tumorigenic transformation of NIH3T3 cells. Environ Sci Technol 47(11):5913–5920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Krasner SW, Weinberg HS, Richardson SD, Pastor SJ, Chinn R, Sclimenti MJ, Onstad GD, Thruston AD Jr (2006) Occurrence of a new generation of disinfection byproducts. Environ Sci Technol 40(23):7175–7185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Weinberg HS, Krasner SW, Richardson SD et al (2002) The occurrence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) of health concern in drinking water: results of a nationwide DBP occurrence study. EPA/600/R02/068, p 460. http://goo.gl/MZzvm4. Accessed Mar 2015
  41. 41.
    Luo Y, Guo W, Ngo HH, Nghiem LD, Hai FI, Zhang J, Liang S, Wang XC (2014) A review on the occurrence of micropollutants in the aquatic environment and their fate and removal during wastewater treatment. Sci Total Environ 473–474:619–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rahman MF, Peldszus S, Anderson WB (2014) Behaviour and fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water treatment: a review. Water Res 50:318–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Drewes JE, Anderson P, Denslow N, Olivieri A, Schlenk D, Snyder SA, Maruya KA (2013) Designing monitoring programs for chemicals of emerging concern in potable reuse. What to include and what not to include? Water Sci Technol 67(2):433–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) (2009) Contaminant candidate list 3 – CCL3. http://goo.gl/dXiSCf. Accessed Mar 2015
  45. 45.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) (2006) 2010/2015 PFOA Stewardship program. http://goo.gl/Bp3oST. Accessed Mar 2015
  46. 46.
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2008) Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and their salts. Scientific opinion of the panel on contaminants in the food chain. http://goo.gl/0KYYzC. Accessed Mar 2015
  47. 47.
    Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemicals Agency, amending Directive 1999/45/EC and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 793/93 and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1488/94 as well as Council Directive 76/769/EEC and Commission Directives 91/155/EEC, 93/67/EEC, 93/105/EC and 2000/21/EC. Off J Eur Union L 396/1. http://goo.gl/SzMdLN. Accessed Mar 2015
  48. 48.
    EU Commission Regulation 757/2010 of 24 August 2010 amending Regulation (EC) 850/2004 of the European Parliament and the Council on persistent organic pollutants as regards Annexes I and III. Off J Eur Union L 223/29. http://goo.gl/UZEKoN. Accessed Mar 2015
  49. 49.
    Richardson SD (2012) Environmental mass spectrometry: emerging contaminants and current issues. Anal Chem 84:747–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Skutlarek D, Exner M, Färber H (2006) Perfluorinated surfactants in surface and drinking waters. Environ Sci Pollut Res 13(5):299–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Quinete N, Wu Q, Zhang T, Yun SH, Moreira I, Kannan K (2009) Specific profiles of perfluorinated compounds in surface and drinking waters and accumulation in mussels, fish, and dolphins from southeastern Brazil. Chemosphere 77(6):863–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Quiñones O, Snyder SA (2009) Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in drinking water utilities and related waters from the United States. Environ Sci Technol 43(24):9089–9095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Thompson J, Eaglesham G, Mueller J (2011) Concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and other perfluorinated alkyl acids in Australian drinking water. Chemosphere 83(10):1320–1325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yim LM, Taniyasu S, Yeung LWY, Lu G, Jin L, Yang Y, Lam PKS, Kannan K, Yamashita N (2009) Perfluorinated compounds in tap water from china and several other countries. Environ Sci Technol 43(13):4824–4829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Boiteux V, Dauchy X, Rosin C, Boiteux JFV (2012) National screening study on 10 perfluorinated compounds in raw and treated tap water in France. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 63(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Llorca M, Farré M, Picó Y, Müller J, Knepper TP, Barceló D (2012) Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in waters from Germany and Spain. Sci Total Environ 431:139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Loos R, Wollgast J, Huber T, Hanke G (2007) Polar herbicides, pharmaceutical products, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and nonylphenol and its carboxylates and ethoxylates in surface and tap waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy. Anal Bioanal Chem 387(4):1469–1478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kümmerer K (ed) (2008) Pharmaceuticals in the environment: sources, fate, effects and risks, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Heberer T (2002) Occurrence, fate, and removal of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment: a review of recent research data. Toxicol Lett 131:5–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Keen PL, Montforts MHMM (eds) (2012) Antimicrobial resistance in the environment. Wiley-Blackwell/Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Directive 2013/39/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 August 2013 amending Directives 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC as regards priority substances in the field of water policy. Off J Eur Union L 226/1. http://goo.gl/b0xcE1. Accessed Mar 2015
  62. 62.
    Oaks JL, Gilbert M, Virani MZ, Watson RT, Meteyer CU, Rideout BA, Shivaprasad HL, Ahmed S, Chaudhry MJI, Arshad M, Mahmood S, Ali A, Khan AA (2004) Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan. Nature 427(6975):630–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kidd KA, Blanchfield PJ, Mills KH, Palace VP, Evans RE, Lazorchak JM, Flick RW (2007) Collapse of a fish population after exposure to a synthetic estrogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(21):8897–8901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bedoux G, Roig B, Thomas O, Dupont V, Le Bot B (2012) Occurrence and toxicity of antimicrobial triclosan and by-products in the environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19(4):1044–1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Commission Regulation (EU) No 358/2014 of 9 April 2014 amending Annexes II and V to Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on cosmetic products. Off J Eur Union L 107/5. http://goo.gl/eBnsPX. Accessed Mar 2015
  66. 66.
    Brausch JM, Rand GM (2011) A review of personal care products in the aquatic environment: environmental concentrations and toxicity. Chemosphere 82(11):1518–1532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Błedzka D, Gromadzińska J, Wasowicz W (2014) Parabens. From environmental studies to human health. Environ Int 67:27–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Blanco E, Casais MC, Mejuto MC, Cela R (2009) Combination of off-line solid-phase extraction and on-column sample stacking for sensitive determination of parabens and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in waters by non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis. Anal Chim Acta 647(1):104–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Casas Ferreira AM, Möder M, Fernández Laespada ME (2011) GC-MS determination of parabens, triclosan and methyl triclosan in water by in situ derivatisation and stir-bar sorptive extraction. Anal Bioanal Chem 399(2):945–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Caldas SS, Bolzan CM, Guilherme JR, Silveira MAK, Escarrone ALV, Primel EG (2013) Determination of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides in surface and treated waters: method development and survey. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20(8):5855–5863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wise A, O’Brien K, Woodruff T (2011) Are oral contraceptives a significant contributor to the estrogenicity of drinking water? Environ Sci Technol 45(1):51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Loraine GA, Pettigrove ME (2006) Seasonal variations in concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in drinking water and reclaimed wastewater in Southern California. Environ Sci Technol 40(3):687–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kleywegt S, Pileggi V, Yang P, Hao C, Zhao X, Rocks C, Thach S, Cheung P, Whitehead B (2011) Pharmaceuticals, hormones and bisphenol A in untreated source and finished drinking water in Ontario, Canada - occurrence and treatment efficiency. Sci Total Environ 409(8):1481–1488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Metcalfe CD, Chu S, Judt C, Li H, Oakes KD, Servos MR, Andrews DM (2010) Antidepressants and their metabolites in municipal wastewater, and downstream exposure in an urban watershed. Environ Toxicol Chem 29(1):79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Servos MR, Smith M, McInnis R, Burnison BK, Lee BH, Seto P, Backus S (2007) The presence of selected pharmaceuticals and the antimicrobial triclosan in drinking water in Ontario, Canada. Water Qual Res J Can 42(2):130–137Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Pereira RO, Postigo C, de Alda ML, Daniel LA, Barceló D (2011) Removal of estrogens through water disinfection processes and formation of by-products. Chemosphere 82(6):789–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Daughton CG (2010) Pharmaceutical ingredients in drinking water: occurrence and significance of human exposure. In: Haldon R (ed) Contaminants of emerging concern in the environment: ecological and human health considerations, vol 1048, American Chemical Society symposium series. American Chemical Society, Washington, pp 9–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Watkinson AJ, Murby EJ, Kolpin DW, Costanzo SD (2009) The occurrence of antibiotics in an urban watershed: from wastewater to drinking water. Sci Total Environ 407(8):2711–2723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Castiglioni S, Zuccato E, Fanelli R (eds) (2011) Illicit drugs in the environment: occurrence, analysis and fate using mass spectrometry. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Postigo C, Lopez de Alda MJ, Barceló D (2008) Analysis of drugs of abuse and their human metabolites in water by LC-MS2: a non-intrusive tool for drug abuse estimation at the community level. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 27(11):1053–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Boleda MR, Huerta-Fontela M, Ventura F, Galceran MT (2011) Evaluation of the presence of drugs of abuse in tap waters. Chemosphere 84(11):1601–1607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Pal R, Megharaj M, Kirkbride KP, Naidu R (2013) Illicit drugs and the environment - a review. Sci Total Environ 463–464:1079–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kuch HM, Ballschmiter K (2001) Determination of endocrine-disrupting phenolic compounds and estrogens in surface and drinking water by HRGC-(NCI)-MS in the picogram per liter range. Environ Sci Technol 35(15):3201–3206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Stackelberg PE, Gibs J, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Zaugg SD, Lippincott RL (2007) Efficiency of conventional drinking-water-treatment processes in removal of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds. Sci Total Environ 377(2–3):255–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Fan Z, Hu J, An W, Yang M (2013) Detection and occurrence of chlorinated byproducts of bisphenol a, nonylphenol, and estrogens in drinking water of China: comparison to the parent compounds. Environ Sci Technol 47(19):10841–10850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Esteban S, Gorga M, Petrovic M, González-Alonso S, Barceló D, Valcárcel Y (2014) Analysis and occurrence of endocrine-disrupting compounds and estrogenic activity in the surface waters of Central Spain. Sci Total Environ 466–467:939–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Harris CA, Routledge EJ, Schaffner C, Brian JV, Giger W, Sumpter JP (2007) Benzotriazole is antiestrogenic in vitro but not in vivo. Environ Toxicol Chem 26(11):2367–2372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Tangtian H, Bo L, Wenhua L, Shin PKS, Wu RSS (2012) Estrogenic potential of benzotriazole on marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 80:327–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Janna H, Scrimshaw MD, Williams RJ, Churchley J, Sumpter JP (2011) From dishwasher to tap? Xenobiotic substances benzotriazole and tolyltriazole in the environment. Environ Sci Technol 45(9):3858–3864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Loos R, Locoro G, Comero S, Contini S, Schwesig D, Werres F, Balsaa P, Gans O, Weiss S, Blaha L, Bolchi M, Gawlik BM (2010) Pan-European survey on the occurrence of selected polar organic persistent pollutants in ground water. Water Res 44(14):4115–4126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Loos R, Gawlik BM, Locoro G, Rimaviciute E, Contini S, Bidoglio G (2009) EU-wide survey of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters. Environ Pollut 157(2):561–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Isaacson C, Mohr TKG, Field JA (2006) Quantitative determination of 1,4-dioxane and tetrahydrofuran in groundwater by solid phase extraction GC/MS/MS. Environ Sci Technol 40(23):7305–7311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Stepien DK, Diehl P, Helm J, Thoms A, Püttmann W (2014) Fate of 1,4-dioxane in the aquatic environment: from sewage to drinking water. Water Res 48(1):406–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mohr TKG, Stickney JA, DiGuiseppi WH (2010) Environmental investigation and remediation: 1,4-dioxane and other solvent stabilizers. CRC, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Blount BC, Alwis KU, Jain RB, Solomon BL, Morrow JC, Jackson WA (2010) Perchlorate, nitrate, and iodide intake through tap water. Environ Sci Technol 44(24):9564–9570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wu Q, Zhang T, Sun H, Kannan K (2010) Perchlorate in tap water, groundwater, surface waters, and bottled water from China and its association with other inorganic anions and with disinfection byproducts. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 58(3):543–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Belzile N, Chen YW, Filella M (2011) Human exposure to antimony: I. sources and intake. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 41(14):1309–1373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Westerhoff P, Prapaipong P, Shock E, Hillaireau A (2008) Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water. Water Res 42(3):551–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Shotyk W, Krachler M, Chen B (2006) Contamination of Canadian and European bottled waters with antimony from PET containers. J Environ Monit 8(2):288–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Merel S, Clément M, Thomas O (2010) State of the art on cyanotoxins in water and their behaviour towards chlorine. Toxicon 55(4):677–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Corbel S, Mougin C, Bouaïcha N (2014) Cyanobacterial toxins: modes of actions, fate in aquatic and soil ecosystems, phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation in agricultural crops. Chemosphere 96:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Yen HK, Lin TF, Liao PC (2011) Simultaneous detection of nine cyanotoxins in drinking water using dual solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Toxicon 58(2):209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Svirčev Z, Krstić S, Miladinov-Mikov M, Baltić V, Vidović M (2009) Freshwater cyanobacterial blooms and primary liver cancer epidemiological studies in Serbia. J Environ Sci Health C 27(1):36–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Wu HY, Zheng LX, Su J, Shi W (2005) Survey on the contamination of microcystin-LR in water supply of Shanghai city. Weisheng Yangjiu (Hygiene Research) 34(2):152–154Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wert EC, Korak JA, Trenholm RA, Rosario-Ortiz FL (2014) Effect of oxidant exposure on the release of intracellular microcystin, MIB, and geosmin from three cyanobacteria species. Water Res 52:251–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Schmidt CK, Brauch HJ (2008) N, N-dimethosulfamide as precursor for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation upon ozonation and its fate during drinking water treatment. Environ Sci Technol 42:6340–6346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    von Gunten U, Salhi E, Schmidt CK, Arnold WA (2010) Kinetics and mechanisms of N -nitrosodimethylamine formation upon ozonation of N, N -dimethylsulfamide-containing waters: bromide catalysis. Environ Sci Technol 44(15):5762–5768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Quintana JB, Rodil R, López-Mahía P, Muniategui-Lorenzo S, Prada-Rodríguez D (2010) Investigating the chlorination of acidic pharmaceuticals and by-product formation aided by an experimental design methodology. Water Res 44(1):243–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Soufan M, Deborde M, Legube B (2012) Aqueous chlorination of diclofenac: kinetic study and transformation products identification. Water Res 46(10):3377–3386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sein MM, Zedda M, Tuerk J, Schmidt TC, Golloch A, Von Sonntag C (2008) Oxidation of diclofenac with ozone in aqueous solution. Environ Sci Technol 42(17):6656–6662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    McDowell DC, Huber MM, Wagner M, Von Gunten U, Ternes TA (2005) Ozonation of carbamazepine in drinking water: identification and kinetic study of major oxidation products. Environ Sci Technol 39(20):8014–8022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Soufan M, Deborde M, Delmont A, Legube B (2013) Aqueous chlorination of carbamazepine: kinetic study and transformation product identification. Water Res 47(14):5076–5087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    González-Mariño I, Quintana JB, Rodríguez I, Sánchez-Méndez N, Cela R (2012) Transformation of cocaine during water chlorination. Anal Bioanal Chem 404(10):3135–3144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    González-Mariño I, Rodríguez I, Quintana JB, Cela R (2013) Investigation of the transformation of 11-nor-9-carboxy-δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol during water chlorination by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. J Hazard Mater 261:628–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Huerta-Fontela M, Pineda O, Ventura F, Galceran MT (2012) New chlorinated amphetamine-type-stimulants disinfection-by-products formed during drinking water treatment. Water Res 46(10):3304–3314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Le Roux J, Gallard H, Croué JP (2011) Chloramination of nitrogenous contaminants (pharmaceuticals and pesticides): NDMA and halogenated DBPs formation. Water Res 45(10):3164–3174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Shen R, Andrews SA (2011) Demonstration of 20 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as nitrosamine precursors during chloramine disinfection. Water Res 45(2):944–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Rule KL, Ebbett VR, Vikesland PJ (2005) Formation of chloroform and chlorinated organics by free-chlorine-mediated oxidation of triclosan. Environ Sci Technol 39(9):3176–3185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Greyshock AE, Vikesland PJ (2006) Triclosan reactivity in chloraminated waters. Environ Sci Technol 40(8):2615–2622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Vikesland PJ, Fiss EM, Wigginton KR, McNeill K, Arnold WA (2013) Halogenation of bisphenol-A, triclosan, and phenols in chlorinated waters containing iodide. Environ Sci Technol 47(13):6764–6772Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Canosa P, Rodríguez I, Rubí E, Negreira N, Cela R (2006) Formation of halogenated by-products of parabens in chlorinated water. Anal Chim Acta 575(1):106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Terasaki M, Makino M (2008) Determination of chlorinated by-products of parabens in swimming pool water. Int J Environ Anal Chem 88(13):911–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Terasaki M, Takemura Y, Makino M (2012) Paraben-chlorinated derivatives in river waters. Environ Chem Lett 10(4):401–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Tay KS, Rahman NA, Abas MRB (2010) Ozonation of parabens in aqueous solution: kinetics and mechanism of degradation. Chemosphere 81(11):1446–1453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hu JY, Aizawa T, Ookubo S (2002) Products of aqueous chlorination of bisphenol A and their estrogenic activity. Environ Sci Technol 36(9):1980–1987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Deborde M, Rabouan S, Mazellier P, Duguet JP, Legube B (2008) Oxidation of bisphenol A by ozone in aqueous solution. Water Res 42(16):4299–4308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Merel S, Clément M, Mourot A, Fessard V, Thomas O (2010) Characterization of cylindrospermopsin chlorination. Sci Total Environ 408(16):3433–3442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Huang AT, Batterman S (2010) Sorption of trihalomethanes in foods. Environ Int 36(7):754–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Cardador MJ, Gallego M (2012) Effect of the chlorinated washing of minimally processed vegetables on the generation of haloacetic acids. J Agric Food Chem 60(29):7326–7332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Huang AT, Batterman S (2009) Formation of trihalomethanes in foods and beverages. Food Addit Contam 26(7):947–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ashley DL, Blount BC, Singer PC, Depaz E, Wilkes C, Gordon S, Lyu C, Masters J (2005) Changes in blood trihalomethane concentrations resulting from differences in water quality and water use activities. Arch Environ Occup Health 60(1):7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Haddad S, Tardif GC, Tardif R (2006) Development of physiologically based toxicokinetic models for improving the human indoor exposure assessment to water contaminants: trichloroethylene and trihalomethanes. J Toxicol Environ Health Part A 69(23):2095–2136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Leavens TL, Blount BC, Demarini DM, Madden MC, Valentine JL, Case MW, Silva LK, Warren SH, Hanley NM, Pegram RA (2007) Disposition of bromodichloromethane in humans following oral and dermal exposure. Toxicol Sci 99(2):432–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Li J, Blatchley ER III (2007) Volatile disinfection byproduct formation resulting from chlorination of organic - nitrogen precursors in swimming pools. Environ Sci Technol 41(19):6732–6739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Xu X, Weisel CP (2005) Dermal uptake of chloroform and haloketones during bathing. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 15(4):289–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Xu X, Weisel CP (2005) Human respiratory uptake of chloroform and haloketones during showering. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 15(1):6–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Zwiener C, Richardson SD, DeMarini DM, Grummt T, Glauner T, Frimmel FH (2007) Drowning in disinfection byproducts? Assessing swimming pool water. Environ Sci Technol 41:363–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Walse SS, Mitch WA (2008) Nitrosamine carcinogens also swim in chlorinated pools. Environ Sci Technol 42:1032–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Weaver WA, Li J, Wen YL, Johnston J, Blatchley MR, Blatchley ERI (2009) Volatile disinfection by-product analysis from chlorinated indoor swimming pools. Water Res 43:3308–3318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Weisel CP, Richardson SD, Nemery B, Aggazzotti G, Baraldi E, Blatchley ERI, Blount BC, Carlsen KH, Eggleston PA, Frimmel FH, Goodman M, Gordon G, Grinshpun SA, Heederik D, Kogevinas M, LaKind JS, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Piper FC, Sattar SA (2009) Childhood asthma and environmental exposures at swimming pools: state of the science and research recommendations. Environ Health Perspect 117:500–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Lakind JS, Richardson SD, Blount BC (2010) The good, the bad, and the volatile: can we have both healthy pools and healthy people? Environ Sci Technol 44(9):3205–3210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Font-Ribera L, Kogevinas M, Zock J, Gómez FP, Barreiro E, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Fernandez P, Lourencetti C, Pérez-Olabarría M, Bustamante M, Marcos R, Grimalt JO, Villanueva CM (2010) Short-term changes in respiratory biomarkers after swimming in a chlorinated pool. Environ Health Perspect 118(11):1538–1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Kogevinas M, Villanueva CM, Font-Ribera L, Liviac D, Bustamante M, Espinoza F, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Espinosa A, Fernandez P, Demarini DM, Grimalt JO, Grummt T, Marcos R (2010) Genotoxic effects in swimmers exposed to disinfection by-products in indoor swimming pools. Environ Health Perspect 118(11):1531–1537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Richardson SD, DeMarini DM, Kogevinas M, Fernandez P, Marco E, Lourencetti C, Ballesté C, Heederik D, Meliefste K, McKague AB, Marcos R, Font-Ribera L, Grimalt JO, Villanueva CM (2010) What’s in the pool? A comprehensive identification of disinfection by-products and assessment of mutagenicity of chlorinated and brominated swimming pool water. Environ Health Perspect 118(11):1523–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Liviac D, Wagner ED, Mitch WA, Altonji MJ, Plewa MJ (2010) Genotoxicity of water concentrates from recreational pools after various disinfection methods. Environ Sci Technol 44(9):3527–3532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Cardador MJ, Gallego M (2011) Haloacetic acids in swimming pools: swimmer and worker exposure. Environ Health Perspect 118:1545–1550Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Plewa MJ, Wagner ED, Mitch WA (2011) Comparative mammalian cell cytotoxicity of water concentrates from disinfected recreational pools. Environ Sci Technol 45:4159–4165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Amer K, Karanfil T (2011) Formation of disinfection by-products in indoor swimming pool water. The contribution from filling water natural organic matter and swimmer body fluids. Water Res 45:926–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Erdinger L, Kühn KP, Kirsch F, Feldhues R, Fröbel T, Nohynek B, Gabrio T (2004) Pathways of trihalomethane uptake in swimming pools. Int J Hyg Environ Health 207(6):571–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Backer LC, Ashley DL, Bonin MA, Cardinali FL, Kieszak SM, Wooten JV (2000) Household exposures to drinking water disinfection by-products: whole blood trihalomethane levels. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 10(4):321–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Lynberg M, Nuckols JR, Langlois P, Ashley D, Singer P, Mendola P, Wilkes C, Krapfl H, Miles E, Speight V, Lin B, Small L, Miles A, Bonin M, Zeitz P, Tadkod A, Henry J, Forrester MB (2001) Assessing exposure to disinfection by-products in women of reproductive age living in Corpus Christi, Texas and Cobb County, Georgia: descriptive results and methods. Environ Health Perspect 109(6):597–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Miles AM, Singer PC, Ashley DL, Lynberg MC, Mendola P, Langlois PH, Nuckols JR (2002) Comparison of trihalomethanes in tap water and blood. Environ Sci Technol 36(8):1692–1698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Nuckols JR, Ashley DL, Lyu C, Gordon SM, Hinckley AF, Singer P (2005) Influence of tap water quality and household water use activities on indoor air and internal dose levels of trihalomethanes. Environ Health Perspect 113(7):863–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Villanueva CM, Cantor KP, Grimalt JO, Malats N, Silverman D, Tardon A, Garcia-Closas R, Serra C, Carrato A, Castaño-Vinyals G, Marcos R, Rothman N, Real FX, Dosemeci M, Kogevinas M (2007) Bladder cancer and exposure to water disinfection by-products through ingestion, bathing, showering, and swimming in pools. Am J Epidemiol 165(2):148–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Cantor KP, Villanueva CM, Silverman DT, Figueroa JD, Real FX, Garcia-Closas M, Malats N, Chanock S, Yeager M, Tardon A, Garcia-Closas R, Serra C, Carrato A, Castaño-Vinyals G, Samanic C, Rothman N, Kogevinas M (2010) Polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTZ1, AND CYP2E1, disinfection by-products, and risk of bladder cancer in Spain. Environ Health Perspect 118(11):1545–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Schoeny R (2010) Disinfection by-products: a question of balance. Environ Health Perspect 118(11):A466–A467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Radjenović J, Petrović M, Ventura F, Barceló D (2008) Rejection of pharmaceuticals in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membrane drinking water treatment. Water Res 42(14):3601–3610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lipp P, Sacher F, Baldauf G (2010) Removal of organic micro-pollutants during drinking water treatment by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. Desalin Water Treat 13(1–3):226–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Fujioka T, Khan SJ, Poussade Y, Drewes JE, Nghiem LD (2012) N-nitrosamine removal by reverse osmosis for indirect potable water reuse - a critical review based on observations from laboratory-, pilot- and full-scale studies. Sep Purif Technol 98:503–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Siegrist H, Joss A (2012) Review on the fate of organic micropollutants in wastewater treatment and water reuse with membranes. Water Sci Technol 66(6):1369–1376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Hollender J, Zimmermann SG, Koepke S, Krauss M, McArdell CS, Ort C, Singer H, Von Gunten U, Siegrist H (2009) Elimination of organic micropollutants in a municipal wastewater treatment plant upgraded with a full-scale post-ozonation followed by sand filtration. Environ Sci Technol 43(20):7862–7869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Linge KL, Blythe JW, Busetti F, Blair P, Rodriguez C, Heitz A (2013) Formation of halogenated disinfection by-products during microfiltration and reverse osmosis treatment: implications for water recycling. Sep Purif Technol 104:221–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Bartels CR, Wilf M, Andes K, Iong J (2005) Design considerations for wastewater treatment by reverse osmosis. Water Sci Technol 51:473–482Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental ChemistryInstitute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC)BarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations