Biodegradation of Pharmaceuticals by Fungi and Metabolites Identification

  • C. Cruz-Morató
  • C. E. Rodríguez-Rodríguez
  • E. Marco-Urrea
  • M. Sarrà
  • G. Caminal
  • T. Vicent
  • A. Jelić
  • M. J. García-Galán
  • S. Pérez
  • M. S. Díaz-Cruz
  • M. Petrović
  • D. Barceló
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 24)

Abstract

Pharmaceutical compounds comprise a widely employed group of therapeutic agents now considered as emerging micropollutants. This chapter summarizes the state of the art in the degradation of pharmaceuticals by fungi in liquid matrices (with emphasis on white-rot fungi), including the use of both whole cells and fungal enzymes. The identification of the metabolites produced as well as the proposed degradation pathways available for some drugs are discussed. The information is organized according to the activity of the pharmaceutical compounds, grouped in: anti-inflammatory/analgesic drugs, psychiatric drugs, lipid regulators, antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents, β-blockers, estrogens, and iodinated contrast media. Considering the interest in potential application of fungal treatments in future real scale bioremediation of effluents, the ecotoxicology of the process is included when available.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Degradation Pharmaceuticals Toxicity Transformation products White-rot fungi 

Abbreviations and Symbols

ABTS

2,2-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt

BSTR

Batch stirred tank reactor

CLEAs

Cross-linked enzyme aggregates

DMHAP

3,5-Dimethoxy-4-hydroxyacetophenol

E1

Estrone

E2

17β-Estradiol

E3

Estriol

EC50

Half maximal effective concentration

EE2

17α-Ethinyl estradiol

FBR

Fluidized bed reactor

HBT

1-Hydroxybenzotriazole

HPLC

High performance liquid chromatography

HRT

Hydraulic retention time

LAC

Laccase

LiP

Lignin peroxidase

LME

Lignin modifying enzymes

MnP

Manganese peroxidase

PBR

Packed-bed reactor

SYD

Syringaldehyde

TP

Transformation products

VA

Violuric acid

VP

Versatile peroxidase

WRF

White-rot fungi

WWTP

Wastewater treatment plant

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Cruz-Morató
    • 1
  • C. E. Rodríguez-Rodríguez
    • 2
    • 3
  • E. Marco-Urrea
    • 1
  • M. Sarrà
    • 1
  • G. Caminal
    • 4
  • T. Vicent
    • 1
  • A. Jelić
    • 5
  • M. J. García-Galán
    • 5
  • S. Pérez
    • 5
  • M. S. Díaz-Cruz
    • 5
  • M. Petrović
    • 6
    • 7
  • D. Barceló
    • 5
    • 7
  1. 1.Departament d’Enginyeria QuímicaUniversitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB)BellaterraSpain
  2. 2.Unitat Asociada de Biocatàlisi Aplicada IQAC-CSICEscola d’Enginyeria, Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBellaterra, BarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Centro de Investigación en Contaminación Ambiental (CICA)Universidad de Costa RicaSan JoséCosta Rica
  4. 4.Grupo de biocatalisis Aplicada y biodegradaciónIQAC-CSICBarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Department of Environmental ChemistryIDAEA, CSICBarcelonaSpain
  6. 6.ICREA Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Passeig Lluís CompanysBarcelonaSpain
  7. 7.Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA)Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de GironaGironaSpain

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