Case Study on Printed Matter in Denmark

Chapter

Abstract

The implementation of the EU REACH regulation will most probably promote substitution within sectors handling a lot of different chemicals such as the printing industry. With the aim of being at the cutting edge of this development, the Danish printing industry started up a substitution project in 2006. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals, which are the potential candidates for substitution (e.g., PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS). The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study and an investigation of the actual (2007) presence of candidate substances at 15 Danish printing houses including the examination of almost 900 MSDSs (i.e., products). Furthermore, a focused search in the Danish Product Register has been included. More than 200 of the mapped substances are candidates for substitution according to Danish legislation (List of Undesirable Substances) and about 60 of these substances fulfill one or more of the criteria (e.g., CMR, EDS) for the REACH Annex XIV candidate list (Authorisation List). This case study presents the results of the mapping of chemical substitution candidates some of which may be relevant regarding accumulation of additives/impurities in globally recycled paper.

Keywords

Chemical substitution candidates Printing industry REACH Recycled paper Substances of very high concern (SVHC) 

Abbreviations and Symbols

AT

Danish Working Environment Authority

CMR

Carcinogenic, mutagenic, reprotoxic

DTU

Technical University of Denmark

ECHA

European Chemicals Agency

EDS

Endocrine disrupting substances

EFL

Effect list

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

EU

European Union

IARC

International Agency for Research on Cancer

IPU

Institute for Product Development

LOFS

List of hazardous substances

LOUS

List of undesirable substances

MSDS

Material safety data sheets

NOEC

No observed effect concentration

PBT

Persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic

POP

Persistent organic pollutants

QSAR

Quantitative structure-activity relationship

REACH

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals

Rxx

Risk phrases (e.g., R45, R50/53)

SVHC

Substances of very high concern

vPvB

very Persistent, very Bioaccumulating

References

  1. 1.
    Lauritsen KB (1991) Renere teknologi i den grafiske branche (Cleaner technology in the printing industry). Miljøprojekt nr. 169 (book in Danish). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sedorff L, Kjølholt J, Andersen HV, Jensen MM (1993) Miljøvurdering af fotokemikalier (Environmental assessment of photo chemicals). Miljøprojekt 218 (book in Danish). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Larsen HF, Tørsløv J, Damborg A (1995) Indsatsområder for renere teknologi i den grafiske branche – spildevandsvurdering. (Areas of intervention for cleaner technology in the printing industry – assessment of waste water). Miljøprojekt nr. 284 (book in Danish with English summary). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Larsen HF, Pedersen AR, Birch H, Rasmussen D, Hansen LE (1998) Miljøoptimering af rammevask ved serigrafi (Evaluation of Best Available Technology (BAT) in screen cleaning). Miljøprojekt nr. 381 (book in Danish with English summary). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Larsen HF, Helweg C, Pedersen AR, Andersen M, Wallström E, Hoffmann L (2002) Miljøoptimering af afvaskning ved tryk med vandfortyndbar flexofarve (Evaluation of Best Available Technology (BAT) in washing off water-based flexographic inks in the packaging printing industry). Miljøprojekt nr. 730 (book in Danish with English summary). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). (http://ecb.jrc.it/legislation/2006R1907EC.pdf)
  7. 7.
    Larsen H, Bøg C (2011) Kemikaliesubstitution i grafisk branche substitutionsdatabase med kortlægningsresultater (Substitution of chemicals in the printing industry – database and inventory results). Miljøprojekt nr. 1354 (book in Danish with English summary). Danish Ministry of the Environment. Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Havelund S (2002) Kortlægning af perfluoroktanylsulfonat og lignende stoffer i forbrugerprodukter – fase 2. Miljøprojekt 691 (book in Danish). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hoffmann L, Poulsen P, Wallström E, Andersen K, Sørensen EH, Sørensen JB (2003) Substitution af alkylphenolthoxylater (APEO). Arbejdsrapport nr. 45 (book in Danish). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Larsen HF, Hansen MS, Hauschild M (2006) Ecolabelling of printed matter. Part II: Life cycle assessment of model sheet fed offset printed matter. Working Report No. 24. Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Larsen HF, Helweg C, Pedersen AR, Boyd HB, Laursen SE, Hansen J (2000) Kemikalier i tekstiler (Chemicals in textiles). Miljøprojekt 534 (book in Danish with English summary). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Madsen T, Boyd HB, Nylén D, Pedersen AR, Pedersen GI, Simonsen F (2001) Environmental and health assessment of substances in household detergents and cosmetic detergents products. Environmental Project No. 615, 2001. Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pilemand C, Wallström E, Hoffmann L, Poulsen PB (2003) Substitution of Cobalt Driers and Methyl Ethyl Ketoxime. Environmental Project No. 884. Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rasmussen JO, Madsen T, Skak C, Nulén D (2003) Substitution af alkylphenolethoxylater (APE) i maling, træbeskyttelse, lime og fugemasser. Arbejdsrapport fra Miljøstyrelsen Nr. 46 (book in Danish with English summary). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wallström E, Andersen BH, Jensen OK (1996) Videreudvikling af vandfortyndbare tekstiltrykfarver til Cool Flash trykning. Arbejdsrapport fra Miljøstyrelsen Nr. 79 (book in Danish). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Andersen P, Larsen HF, Trepile G, Trepile, L, Bøg C (1999) Anvendelse af vandfortyndbar farve til serigrafisk tryk (The use of water based inks in screen printing). Miljøprojekt nr. 508 (book in Danish). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bauman W, Rothardt T (1999) Druckereichemikalien; Daten und Fakten zum Umweltschuts 2. Uberarbeitete and ergänzte Auflage (book in German). Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ludwiszewska J (1992) Grafiske branchen och dess kemikalieanvänding: Exempel från nogra företag inom Hälsingborgs kommun – Miljö- och Hälsoskyddskontoret Hälsingborg Kommun. Rapport 1/92 + Bilagsdel (book in Swedish). Hälsingborg Kommun, HälsingborgGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brodin L, Korostenski J (1995) Miljøbelastningar från grafisk industri i Sverige. Grafiska Miljögruppen. Report version 2 (15-04-2003). Report to SFS (book in Swedish). Milgraf AB, Upplands VäsbyGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brodin L, Korostenski J (1997) Miljøbelastningar från grafisk industri i Sverige: Screen-, Flexo-, Digitaltryck och Efterbearbetning. Preliminär rapport. Kompletterad och reviderad version. Grafiska Miljögruppen. Report version 3 (18-06-1997). Report to SFS (book in Swedish). Milgraf AB, Upplands VäsbyGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Leach RH, Pierce RJ, Hickman EP, Mackenzie MJ, Smith HG (eds) (1992) The Printing Ink Manual. Blueprint, Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Miljøstyrelsen (2004) Listen over uønskede stoffer 2004. Orientering fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 8, 2004, Miljøstyrelsen. + Opdatering af "Listen over uønskede stoffer 2004" og "Effektlisten 2004" af 17. juni 2005 (book in Danish). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    EC (2008) Online PBT information system PBT. List of substances subject to evaluation of their PBT properties under the Interim Strategy for REACH and the ESR program ("an interim strategy for management of PBT and vPvB substances" (doc. ENV/D/432048/01, NOTIF/36/2001) was agreed by the Joint Meeting of the Competent Authorities for the Implementation of Council Directive 67/548/EEC (New Substances) and Council Regulation (EEC) 793/93 (Existing Substances) in June 2001). http://ecb.jrc.it/esis/index.php?PGM=pbt. Accessed Feb 2009
  24. 24.
    Miljøstyrelsen (2004) Effektlisten 2004. Orientering fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 7, 2004, Miljøstyrelsen. + Opdatering af "Listen over uønskede stoffer 2004" og "Effektlisten 2004" af 17. juni 2005 (book in Danish). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Miljøstyrelsen (2005) Listen over farlige stoffer. Bekendtgørelse om listen over farlige stoffer, BEK nr. 923 af 28/09/2005 (29. tilpasning til den tekniske udvikling af Rådets direktiv 67/548/EØF). Danish Ministry of the Environment. Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen. Based on: COMMISSION DIRECTIVE 2004/73/EC of 29 April 2004 adapting to technical progress for the 29th time Council Directive 67/548/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substancesGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
    Arbejdstilsynet (2007) At-vejledning C.0.1, august 2007 (− erstatter april 2005). Grænseværdier for stoffer og materialer. Arbejdstilsynets liste over kræftfremkaldende stoffer og processer, bilag 3.6 (Book in Danish). The Danish Working Environment Authority, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Miljøstyrelsen (2000) Effektlisten 2000. Orientering fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 6, 2000 (book in Danish). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Miljøstyrelsen (2001) Rapport om Vejledende liste til selvklassificering af farlige stoffer. Miljøprojekt Nr. 635, 2001 (book in Danish). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    EC (2002) Decision No 2455/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 November 2001. Establishing the list of priority substances in the field of water policy and amending Directive 2000/60/ECGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Miljøstyrelsen (2000) Listen over uønskede stoffer 2000. En signalliste over kemikalier, hvor brugen på længere sigt bør reduceres eller stoppes. Orientering fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 9, 2000 (book in Danish). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    ECHA (2009) ECHA recommends strict control for seven substances of very high concern. Press Release: ECHA/PR/09/07. Helsinki, 02 June 2009. http://echa.europa.eu/
  33. 33.
    ECHA (2010) Sixteen Substances of Very High Concern closer to tighter control. Press Release: ECHA/PR/10/24. Helsinki, 03 December 2010. http://echa.europa.eu/
  34. 34.
    EC (2009) Commission Regulation (EC) No 790/2009 amending, for the purposes of its adaptation to technical and scientific progress, Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixturesGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Brauer B (2010) Kontaminanten in Recyclingpapier – Problemstoffe, Problemlösungen. Chemisches und Veternäruntersuchungsamt Münsterland-Emscher-Lippe (CVUA-MEL). BfR-Forum Verbraucherschutz. Berlin, 28-10-2010 (slides in German)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Management EngineeringTechnical University of DenmarkLyngbyDenmark

Personalised recommendations