pp 1-17 | Cite as

Algorithms for Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macula Edema- A Review

  • Karkuzhali SuriyasekeranEmail author
  • Senthilkumar Santhanamahalingam
  • Manimegalai Duraisamy
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series


Human eye is one of the important organs in human body, with iris, pupil, sclera, cornea, lens, retina and optic nerve. Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. The most widespread causes of blindness in the industrialized world are glaucoma, Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD), Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and Diabetic Macula Edema (DME). The development of a retinal image analysis system is a demanding research topic for early detection, progression analysis and diagnosis of eye diseases. Early diagnosis and treatment of retinal diseases are essential to prevent vision loss. The huge and growing number of retinal disease affected patients, cost of current hospital-based detection methods (by eye care specialists) and scarcity in the number of ophthalmologists are the barriers to achieve the recommended screening compliance in the patient who is at the risk of retinal diseases. Developing an automated system which uses pattern recognition, computer vision and machine learning to diagnose retinal diseases is a potential solution to this problem. Damage to the tiny blood vessels in the retina in the posterior part of the eye due to diabetes is named as DR. Diabetes is a disease which occurs when the pancreas does not secrete enough insulin or the body does not utilize it properly. This disease slowly affects the circulatory system including that of the retina. As diabetes intensifies, the vision of a patient may start deteriorating and leading to DR. The retinal landmarks like OD and blood vessels, white lesions and red lesions are segmented to develop automated screening system for DR. DME is an advanced symptom of DR that can lead to irreversible vision loss. DME is a general term defined as retinal thickening or exudates present within 2 disk diameter of the fovea center; it can either focal or diffuse DME in distribution. In this paper, review the algorithms used in diagnosis of DR and DME.


Diabetic edema Macula Blood vessels Classification Diabetic retinopathy Exudates Hemorrhages Macula Microanaurysms Optic disc Segmentation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karkuzhali Suriyasekeran
    • 1
    Email author
  • Senthilkumar Santhanamahalingam
    • 2
  • Manimegalai Duraisamy
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringKalasalingam Academy of Research and EducationSriviliputturIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryAyya Nadar Janaki Ammal CollegeSivakasiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Information TechnologyNational Engineering CollegeKovilpattiIndia

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