pp 1-17 | Cite as

The Design and Application of an Appropriate Parkinson’s Disease Animal Model in Regenerative Medicine

  • Bagher Larijani
  • Parisa Goodarzi
  • Moloud Payab
  • Akram Tayanloo-Beik
  • Masoumeh Sarvari
  • Mahdi Gholami
  • Kambiz Gilany
  • Ensieh Nasli-Esfahani
  • Mehrnoosh Yarahmadi
  • Firoozeh Ghaderi
  • Babak ArjmandEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series


Objectives: Aging as an inevitable and complex physiological process occurs through a progressive decrease in the potential of tissue regeneration. Given the increasing global outbreak of aging and age-related disorders, it is important to control this phenomenon. Parkinson’s disease (one of the age-related neurodegenerative and progressive disorders) resulted from predominant dopaminergic neurons deficiency. Usual Parkinson’s disease treatments just can lead to symptomatically relieving. Recently, cell therapy and regenerative medicine a great promise in the treatment of several types of disorders including Parkinson’s disease. Herein, before starting clinical trials, preclinical studies should be performed to answer some fundamental questions about the safety and efficacy of various treatments. Additionally, developing a well-designed and approved study is required to provide an appropriate animal model with strongly reliable validation methods. Hereupon, this review will discuss about the design and application of an appropriate Parkinson’s disease animal model in regenerative medicine.

Evidence acquisition: In order to conduct the present review, numbers of Parkinson’s disease preclinical studies, as well as literatures related to the animal modeling, were considered.

Results: Appropriate animal models which approved by related authorize committees should have a high similarity to humans from anatomical, physiological, behavioral, and genetic characteristics view of point.

Conclusion: It is concluded that animal studies before starting clinical trials have an important role in answering the crucial questions about the various treatments safety and efficacy. Therein, it is recommended that all of animal modeling stages be assessed by animal ethics and welfare guidelines and also evaluated by different validation tests. However, it is better to find some alternatives to replacement, refinement, and, reduction of animals. Nowadays, some novel technologies such as using imaging methods have been introduced.


Animal welfare Parkinson’s disease Regenerative medicine Research design Validation 





Mobility Lab System


Blood-Brain Barrier


Cerebrospinal Fluid




Deep Brain Stimulation


diffusion-weighted MRI


International Council on Laboratory Animal Science


3, 4-Dihydroxy-L-Phenylalanine


Magnetic Resonance Imaging


1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1, 2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine


World Organization for Animal Health


Parkinson’s disease


Positron Emission Tomography




Regenerative Medicine




Substantia Nigra


Tensor-Based Morphometry


Voxel-Based Morphometry


World Health Organization



The authors would like to acknowledge Sepideh Alavi-Moghadam, Dr. Mohsen Khorshidi and Shokouh Salimi for their kind support.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical sciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Neuroscience InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Metabolomics and Genomics Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  6. 6.Department of Toxicology & Pharmacology, Faculty of PharmacyToxicology and Poisoning Research Center, Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  7. 7.Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium
  8. 8.Integrative Oncology Department, Breast Cancer Research CenterMotamed Cancer Institute, ACECRTehranIran
  9. 9.Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  10. 10.Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical sciencesTehranIran
  11. 11.Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  12. 12.Metabolomics and Genomics Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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