Advertisement

pp 1-12 | Cite as

New Pertussis Vaccines: A Need and a Challenge

  • Daniela HozborEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series

Abstract

Effective diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines were used for massive immunization in the 1950s. The broad use of these vaccines significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with pertussis. Because of reports on the induction of adverse reactions, less-reactogenic acellular vaccines (aP) were later developed and in many countries, especially the industrialized ones, the use of wP was changed to aP. For many years, the situation of pertussis seemed to be controlled with the use of these vaccines, however in the last decades the number of pertussis cases increased in several countries. The loss of the immunity conferred by the vaccines, which is faster in the individuals vaccinated with the acellular vaccines, and the evolution of the pathogen towards geno/phenotypes that escape more easily the immunity conferred by the vaccines were proposed as the main causes of the disease resurgence. According to their composition of few immunogens, the aP vaccines seem to be exerting a greater selection pressure on the circulating bacterial population causing the prevalence of bacterial isolates defective in the expression of vaccine antigens. Under this context, it is clear that new vaccines against pertussis should be developed. Several vaccine candidates are in preclinical development and few others have recently completed phaseI/phaseII trials. Vaccine candidate based on OMVs is a promising candidate since appeared overcoming the major weaknesses of current aP-vaccines. The most advanced development is the live attenuated-vaccine BPZE1 which has successfully completed a first-in-man clinical trial.

Keywords

Acellular vaccine Bordetella pertussis Epidemiology Pertussis Whole-cell vaccines 

Notes

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Funding

This study was funded by a grant from the ANCPyT (PICT 2014-3617, PICT 2012- 2719), CONICET and FCE-UNLP (Argentina) grants to DFH. DFH is member of the Scientific Career of CONICET. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

References

  1. Advani A, Gustafsson L, Ahren C, Mooi FR, Hallander HO (2011) Appearance of Fim3 and ptxP3-Bordetella pertussis strains, in two regions of Sweden with different vaccination programs. Vaccine 29(18):3438–3442.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.02.070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen AC, Mills KH (2014) Improved pertussis vaccines based on adjuvants that induce cell-mediated immunity. Expert Rev Vaccines 13(10):1253–1264.  https://doi.org/10.1586/14760584.2014.936391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen AC, Wilk MM, Misiak A, Borkner L, Murphy D, Mills KHG (2018) Sustained protective immunity against Bordetella pertussis nasal colonization by intranasal immunization with a vaccine-adjuvant combination that induces IL-17-secreting TRM cells. Mucosal Immunol 11:1763–1776.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-018-0080-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alvarez Hayes J, Erben E, Lamberti Y, Principi G, Maschi F, Ayala M, Rodriguez ME (2013) Bordetella pertussis iron regulated proteins as potential vaccine components. Vaccine 31(35):3543–3548.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.05.072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asensio CJ, Gaillard ME, Moreno G, Bottero D, Zurita E, Rumbo M, van der Ley P, van der Ark A, Hozbor D (2011) Outer membrane vesicles obtained from Bordetella pertussis Tohama expressing the lipid A deacylase PagL as a novel acellular vaccine candidate. Vaccine 29(8):1649–1656.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.12.068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barkoff AM, Mertsola J, Pierard D, Dalby T, Hoegh SV, Guillot S, Stefanelli P, van Gent M, Berbers G, Vestrheim D, Greve-Isdahl M, Wehlin L, Ljungman M, Fry NK, Markey K, He Q (2019) Pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates: evidence of increased circulation in Europe, 1998 to 2015. Euro Surveill 24(7).  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.7.1700832
  7. Blanchard Rohner G, Chatzis O, Chinwangso P, Rohr M, Grillet S, Salomon C, Lemaitre B, Boonrak P, Lawpoolsri S, Clutterbuck E, Poredi IK, Wijagkanalan W, Spiegel J, Pham HT, Viviani S, Siegrist CA (2018) Boosting teenagers with acellular pertussis vaccines containing recombinant or chemically inactivated pertussis toxin: a randomized clinical trial. Clin Infect Dis 68:1213–1222.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bottero D, Gaillard ME, Fingermann M, Weltman G, Fernandez J, Sisti F, Graieb A, Roberts R, Rico O, Rios G, Regueira M, Binsztein N, Hozbor D (2007) Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, pertactin, pertussis toxin S1 subunit polymorphisms, and surfaceome analysis of vaccine and clinical Bordetella pertussis strains. Clin Vaccine Immunol 14(11):1490–1498.  https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00177-07CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bottero D, Gaillard ME, Zurita E, Moreno G, Martinez DS, Bartel E, Bravo S, Carriquiriborde F, Errea A, Castuma C, Rumbo M, Hozbor D (2016) Characterization of the immune response induced by pertussis OMVs-based vaccine. Vaccine 34(28):3303–3309.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.04.079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowden KE, Weigand MR, Peng Y, Cassiday PK, Sammons S, Knipe K, Rowe LA, Loparev V, Sheth M, Weening K, Tondella ML, Williams MM (2016) Genome structural diversity among 31 Bordetella pertussis isolates from two recent U.S. Whooping Cough Statewide Epidemics. mSphere 1(3).  https://doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00036-16
  11. Brody M, Sorley RG (1947) Neurologic complications following the administration of pertussis vaccine. N Y State J Med 47(9):1016Google Scholar
  12. Brummelman J, Wilk MM, Han WG, van Els CA, Mills KH (2015) Roads to the development of improved pertussis vaccines paved by immunology. Pathog Dis 73(8):ftv067.  https://doi.org/10.1093/femspd/ftv067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buasri W, Impoolsup A, Boonchird C, Luengchaichawange A, Prompiboon P, Petre J, Panbangred W (2012) Construction of Bordetella pertussis strains with enhanced production of genetically-inactivated Pertussis Toxin and Pertactin by unmarked allelic exchange. BMC Microbiol 12:61.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-12-61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cheung GY, Xing D, Prior S, Corbel MJ, Parton R, Coote JG (2006) Effect of different forms of adenylate cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis on protection afforded by an acellular pertussis vaccine in a murine model. Infect Immun 74(12):6797–6805.  https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01104-06CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clark TA (2014) Changing pertussis epidemiology: everything old is new again. J Infect Dis 209(7):978–981.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. David S, van Furth R, Mooi FR (2004) Efficacies of whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines against Bordetella parapertussis in a mouse model. Vaccine 22(15–16):1892–1898.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.11.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dias WO, van der Ark AA, Sakauchi MA, Kubrusly FS, Prestes AF, Borges MM, Furuyama N, Horton DS, Quintilio W, Antoniazi M, Kuipers B, van der Zeijst BA, Raw I (2013) An improved whole cell pertussis vaccine with reduced content of endotoxin. Hum Vaccin Immunother 9(2):339–348Google Scholar
  18. Dunne A, Mielke LA, Allen AC, Sutton CE, Higgs R, Cunningham CC, Higgins SC, Mills KH (2015) A novel TLR2 agonist from Bordetella pertussis is a potent adjuvant that promotes protective immunity with an acellular pertussis vaccine. Mucosal Immunol 8(3):607–617.  https://doi.org/10.1038/mi.2014.93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Edwards KM, Karzon DT (1990) Pertussis vaccines. Pediatr Clin N Am 37(3):549–566Google Scholar
  20. Fedele G, Bianco M, Debrie AS, Locht C, Ausiello CM (2011) Attenuated Bordetella pertussis vaccine candidate BPZE1 promotes human dendritic cell CCL21-induced migration and drives a Th1/Th17 response. J Immunol 186(9):5388–5396.  https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1003765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Feunou PF, Kammoun H, Debrie AS, Mielcarek N, Locht C (2010) Long-term immunity against pertussis induced by a single nasal administration of live attenuated B. pertussis BPZE1. Vaccine 28(43):7047–7053.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.08.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gaillard ME, Bottero D, Errea A, Ormazabal M, Zurita ME, Moreno G, Rumbo M, Castuma C, Bartel E, Flores D, van der Ley P, van der Ark A, FH D (2014) Acellular pertussis vaccine based on outer membrane vesicles capable of conferring both long-lasting immunity and protection against different strain genotypes. Vaccine 32(8):931–937.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.12.048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Geurtsen J, Banus HA, Gremmer ER, Ferguson H, de la Fonteyne-Blankestijn LJ, Vermeulen JP, Dormans JA, Tommassen J, van der Ley P, Mooi FR, Vandebriel RJ (2007) Lipopolysaccharide analogs improve efficacy of acellular pertussis vaccine and reduce type I hypersensitivity in mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol 14(7):821–829.  https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00074-07CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gzyl A, Augustynowicz E, Gniadek G, Rabczenko D, Dulny G, Slusarczyk J (2004) Sequence variation in pertussis S1 subunit toxin and pertussis genes in Bordetella pertussis strains used for the whole-cell pertussis vaccine produced in Poland since 1960: efficiency of the DTwP vaccine-induced immunity against currently circulating B. pertussis isolates. Vaccine 22(17–18):2122–2128.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.12.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. He Q, Makinen J, Berbers G, Mooi FR, Viljanen MK, Arvilommi H, Mertsola J (2003) Bordetella pertussis protein pertactin induces type-specific antibodies: one possible explanation for the emergence of antigenic variants? J Infect Dis 187(8):1200–1205.  https://doi.org/10.1086/368412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hegerle N, Dore G, Guiso N (2014) Pertactin deficient Bordetella pertussis present a better fitness in mice immunized with an acellular pertussis vaccine. Vaccine 32(49):6597–6600.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.09.068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hozbor DF (2016) Outer membrane vesicles: an attractive candidate for pertussis vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines 16:1–4.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2017.1276832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hozbor D, Rodriguez ME, Fernandez J, Lagares A, Guiso N, Yantorno O (1999) Release of outer membrane vesicles from Bordetella pertussis. Curr Microbiol 38(5):273–278Google Scholar
  29. Kallonen T, Mertsola J, Mooi FR, He Q (2012) Rapid detection of the recently emerged Bordetella pertussis strains with the ptxP3 pertussis toxin promoter allele by real-time PCR. Clin Microbiol Infect 18(10):E377–E379.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.04000.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kendrick P (1936) Progress report on pertussis immunization. Am J Public Health Nations Health 26:8–12Google Scholar
  31. King AJ, Berbers G, van Oirschot HF, Hoogerhout P, Knipping K, Mooi FR (2001) Role of the polymorphic region 1 of the Bordetella pertussis protein pertactin in immunity. Microbiology 147. (Pt 11:2885–2895Google Scholar
  32. Klein NP (2014) Licensed pertussis vaccines in the United States. History and current state. Hum Vaccin Immunother 10(9):2684–2690.  https://doi.org/10.4161/hv.29576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Klein NP, Bartlett J, Fireman B, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Baxter R (2013) Comparative effectiveness of acellular versus whole-cell pertussis vaccines in teenagers. Pediatrics 131(6):e1716–e1722.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-3836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Koepke R, Eickhoff JC, Ayele RA, Petit AB, Schauer SL, Hopfensperger DJ, Conway JH, Davis JP (2014) Estimating the Effectiveness of Tdap Vaccine for Preventing Pertussis: Evidence of Rapidly Waning Immunity and Differences in Effectiveness by Tdap Brand. J Infect Dis 210:942–953.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kulenkampff M, Schwartzman JS, Wilson J (1974) Neurological complications of pertussis inoculation. Arch Dis Child 49(1):46–49Google Scholar
  36. Lam C, Octavia S, Ricafort L, Sintchenko V, Gilbert GL, Wood N, McIntyre P, Marshall H, Guiso N, Keil AD, Lawrence A, Robson J, Hogg G, Lan R (2014) Rapid Increase in Pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis 20(4):626–633.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2004.131478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Locht CMN (2014) Live attenuated vaccines against pertussis. Expert Rev Vaccines 13(9):1147–1158.  https://doi.org/10.1586/14760584.2014.942222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Locht C (2016) Live pertussis vaccines: will they protect against carriage and spread of pertussis? Clin Microbiol Infect 22(Suppl 5):S96–S102.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2016.05.029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Locht C, Papin JF, Lecher S, Debrie AS, Thalen M, Solovay K, Rubin K, Mielcarek N (2017) Live Attenuated Pertussis Vaccine BPZE1 Protects Baboons Against Bordetella pertussis Disease and Infection. J Infect Dis 216(1):117–124.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Madsen T (1933) Vaccination against whooping cough. JAMA 101(3):187–188Google Scholar
  41. Mäkelä PH (2000) Vaccines, coming of age after 200 years. FEMS Microbiol Rev 24(1):9–20Google Scholar
  42. Marr N, Oliver DC, Laurent V, Poolman J, Denoel P, Fernandez RC (2008) Protective activity of the Bordetella pertussis BrkA autotransporter in the murine lung colonization model. Vaccine 26(34):4306–4311.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.06.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Martin SW, Pawloski L, Williams M, Weening K, DeBolt C, Qin X, Reynolds L, Kenyon C, Giambrone G, Kudish K, Miller L, Selvage D, Lee A, Skoff TH, Kamiya H, Cassiday PK, Tondella ML, Clark TA (2015) Pertactin-negative Bordetella pertussis strains: evidence for a possible selective advantage. Clin Infect Dis 60(2):223–227.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McGirr A, Fisman DN (2015) Duration of pertussis immunity after DTaP immunization: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 135:331–343.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McGirr AA, Tuite AR, Fisman DN (2013) Estimation of the underlying burden of pertussis in adolescents and adults in Southern Ontario, Canada. PLoS One 8(12):e83850.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, April 2015: conclusions and recommendations (2015) Releve epidemiologique hebdomadaire / Section d’hygiene du Secretariat de la Societe des Nations = Weekly epidemiological record / Health Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations 90 (22):261–278Google Scholar
  47. Mielcarek N, Debrie AS, Raze D, Bertout J, Rouanet C, Younes AB, Creusy C, Engle J, Goldman WE, Locht C (2006) Live attenuated B. pertussis as a single-dose nasal vaccine against whooping cough. PLoS Pathog 2(7):e65.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.0020065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mielcarek N, Debrie AS, Mahieux S, Locht C (2010) Dose response of attenuated Bordetella pertussis BPZE1-induced protection in mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol 17(3):317–324.  https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00322-09CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mills KH, Barnard A, Watkins J, Redhead K (1993) Cell-mediated immunity to Bordetella pertussis: role of Th1 cells in bacterial clearance in a murine respiratory infection model. Infect Immun 61(2):399–410Google Scholar
  50. Mills KH, Ross PJ, Allen AC, Wilk MM (2014) Do we need a new vaccine to control the re-emergence of pertussis? Trends Microbiol 22(2):49–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2013.11.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mooi FR, van Oirschot H, Heuvelman K, van der Heide HG, Gaastra W, Willems RJ (1998) Polymorphism in the Bordetella pertussis virulence factors P.69/pertactin and pertussis toxin in The Netherlands: temporal trends and evidence for vaccine-driven evolution. Infect Immun 66(2):670–675Google Scholar
  52. Mooi FR, van Loo IH, King AJ (2001) Adaptation of Bordetella pertussis to vaccination: a cause for its reemergence? Emerg Infect Dis 7(3 Suppl):526–528Google Scholar
  53. Olin P, Rasmussen F, Gustafsson L, Hallander HO, Heijbel H (1997) Randomised controlled trial of two-component, three-component, and five-component acellular pertussis vaccines compared with whole-cell pertussis vaccine. Ad Hoc Group for the Study of Pertussis Vaccines. Lancet 350(9091):1569–1577Google Scholar
  54. Ormazabal M, Bartel E, Gaillard ME, Bottero D, Errea A, Zurita ME, Moreno G, Rumbo M, Castuma C, Flores D, Martin MJ, Hozbor D (2014) Characterization of the key antigenic components of pertussis vaccine based on outer membrane vesicles. Vaccine 32(46):6084–6090.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.08.084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Podda A, Carapella De Luca E, Titone L, Casadei AM, Cascio A, Bartalini M, Volpini G, Peppoloni S, Marsili I, Nencioni L et al (1993) Immunogenicity of an acellular pertussis vaccine composed of genetically inactivated pertussis toxin combined with filamentous hemagglutinin and pertactin in infants and children. J Pediatr 123(1):81–84Google Scholar
  56. Raeven RH, Brummelman J, Pennings JL, Nijst OE, Kuipers B, Blok LE, Helm K, van Riet E, Jiskoot W, van Els CA, Han WG, Kersten GF, Metz B (2014) Molecular signatures of the evolving immune response in mice following a Bordetella pertussis infection. PLoS One 9(8):e104548.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rappuoli R (1999) The vaccine containing recombinant pertussis toxin induces early and long-lasting protection. Biologicals 27(2):99–102.  https://doi.org/10.1006/biol.1999.0189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Roberts R, Moreno G, Bottero D, Gaillard ME, Fingermann M, Graieb A, Rumbo M, Hozbor D (2008) Outer membrane vesicles as acellular vaccine against pertussis. Vaccine 26(36):4639–4646.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.07.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Romanus V, Jonsell R, Bergquist SO (1987) Pertussis in Sweden after the cessation of general immunization in 1979. Pediatr Infect Dis J 6(4):364–371Google Scholar
  60. Ross PJ, Sutton CE, Higgins S, Allen AC, Walsh K, Misiak A, Lavelle EC, McLoughlin RM, Mills KH (2013) Relative contribution of Th1 and Th17 cells in adaptive immunity to Bordetella pertussis: towards the rational design of an improved acellular pertussis vaccine. PLoS Pathog 9(4):e1003264.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ryan M, Murphy G, Gothefors L, Nilsson L, Storsaeter J, Mills KH (1997) Bordetella pertussis respiratory infection in children is associated with preferential activation of type 1 T helper cells. J Infect Dis 175(5):1246–1250Google Scholar
  62. Ryan M, Murphy G, Ryan E, Nilsson L, Shackley F, Gothefors L, Oymar K, Miller E, Storsaeter J, Mills KH (1998) Distinct T-cell subtypes induced with whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines in children. Immunology 93(1):1–10Google Scholar
  63. Safarchi A, Octavia S, Luu LD, Tay CY, Sintchenko V, Wood N, Marshall H, McIntyre P, Lan R (2015) Pertactin negative Bordetella pertussis demonstrates higher fitness under vaccine selection pressure in a mixed infection model. Vaccine 33(46):6277–6281.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.09.064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sato H, Sato Y (1985) Protective antigens of Bordetella pertussis mouse-protection test against intracerebral and aerosol challenge of B. pertussis. Dev Biol Stand 61:461–467Google Scholar
  65. Sato Y, Kimura M, Fukumi H (1984) Development of a pertussis component vaccine in Japan. Lancet 1(8369):122–126Google Scholar
  66. Sauer LW (1948) Simultaneous immunization against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis; a preliminary report. Q Bull Northwest Univ Med Sch 22(3):281–285Google Scholar
  67. Seubert A, D'Oro U, Scarselli M, Pizza M (2014) Genetically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT-9K/129G): implications for immunization and vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines 13(10):1191–1204.  https://doi.org/10.1586/14760584.2014.942641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sheridan SL, Ware RS, Grimwood K, Lambert SB (2012) Number and order of whole cell pertussis vaccines in infancy and disease protection. JAMA 308(5):454–456.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.6364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sirivichayakul C, Chanthavanich P, Limkittikul K, Siegrist CA, Wijagkanalan W, Chinwangso P, Petre J, Hong Thai P, Chauhan M, Viviani S (2016) Safety and immunogenicity of a combined Tetanus, Diphtheria, recombinant acellular Pertussis vaccine (TdaP) in healthy Thai adults. Hum Vaccin Immunother 13(1):36–143Google Scholar
  70. Skerry CM, Cassidy JP, English K, Feunou-Feunou P, Locht C, Mahon BP (2009) A live attenuated Bordetella pertussis candidate vaccine does not cause disseminating infection in gamma interferon receptor knockout mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol 16(9):1344–1351.  https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00082-09CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Solans L, Locht C (2018) The Role of Mucosal Immunity in Pertussis. Front Immunol 9:3068.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.03068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Stefanelli P, Buttinelli G, Vacca P, Tozzi AE, Midulla F, Carsetti R, Fedele G, Villani A, Concato C (2017) Severe pertussis infection in infants less than 6 months of age: Clinical manifestations and molecular characterization. Hum Vaccin Immunother 13(5):1073–1077.  https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2016.1276139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tan T, Dalby T, Forsyth K, Halperin SA, Heininger U, Hozbor D, Plotkin S, Ulloa-Gutierrez R, von Konig CH (2015) Pertussis across the globe: recent epidemiologic trends from 2000–2013. Pediatr Infect Dis J 34(9):e222–e232.  https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000000795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tartof SY, Lewis M, Kenyon C, White K, Osborn A, Liko J, Zell E, Martin S, Messonnier NE, Clark TA, Skoff TH (2013) Waning immunity to pertussis following 5 doses of DTaP. Pediatrics 131(4):e1047–e1052.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-1928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Thorstensson R, Trollfors B, Al-Tawil N, Jahnmatz M, Bergstrom J, Ljungman M, Torner A, Wehlin L, Van Broekhoven A, Bosman F, Debrie AS, Mielcarek N, Locht C (2014) A phase I clinical study of a live attenuated Bordetella pertussis vaccine--BPZE1; a single centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of BPZE1 given intranasally to healthy adult male volunteers. PLoS One 9(1):e83449.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Warfel JM, Merkel TJ (2013) Bordetella pertussis infection induces a mucosal IL-17 response and long-lived Th17 and Th1 immune memory cells in nonhuman primates. Mucosal Immunol 6(4):787–796.  https://doi.org/10.1038/mi.2012.117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. WHO (2016) Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper, August 2015—Recommendations. Vaccine 34(12):1423–1425.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.10.136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wilk MM, Mills KHG (2018) CD4 TRM Cells Following Infection and Immunization: Implications for More Effective Vaccine Design. Front Immunol 9:1860.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Witt MA, Katz PH, Witt DJ (2012) Unexpectedly limited durability of immunity following acellular pertussis vaccination in preadolescents in a North American outbreak. Clin Infect Dis 54(12):1730–1735.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cis287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Witt MA, Arias L, Katz PH, Truong ET, Witt DJ (2013) Reduced risk of pertussis among persons ever vaccinated with whole cell pertussis vaccine compared to recipients of acellular pertussis vaccines in a large US cohort. Clin Infect Dis 56(9):1248–1254.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cit046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Yeung KHT, Duclos P, Nelson EAS, Hutubessy RCW (2017) An update of the global burden of pertussis in children younger than 5 years: a modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis 17(9):974–980.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30390-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratorio VacSal. Instituto de Biotecnología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Facultad de Ciencias ExactasUniversidad Nacional de La Plata y CCT-La Plata, CONICETLa PlataArgentina

Personalised recommendations