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Noninvasive Ventilation-Facilitated Bronchofiberoscopy in Patients with Respiratory Failure
Respiratory failure is one of the most important risk factors for diagnostic bronchofiberoscopy (BF), whereas therapeutic bronchoscopies are typically performed in intubated patients. Only a few published studies analyzed the outcomes of noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV)-facilitated BF. In this case series, we present our experiences with NIV-facilitated diagnostic and therapeutic BF performed in patients with respiratory failure that was associated with acute interstitial pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis exacerbation, foreign body aspiration, tracheal stenosis, pneumonia, and in a patient with a neuromuscular disease. All of the patients were initially hypoxic and some had PaO2/FiO2 < 200, which corresponded to moderate-to-acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). NIV-facilitated BF were performed for the diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The former consisted of bronchoalveolar lavage and bacterial sampling in a patient with impaired cough reflex, airway assessment in otherwise unexplained respiratory failure and hemoptysis, and the latter of mucous plugs resolution, foreign body removal, and assistance in weaning from mechanical ventilation. All procedures were carried out using NIV in the spontaneous timed (ST) or average volume assured pressure support (AVAPS) mode with oxygen supplementation. There were no procedure-related complications noticed during NIV-facilitated BF. We conclude that NIV is a useful and safe tool that facilitates the performance of BF in severe pulmonary diseases. Prospective studies are required to set the recommendations for the procedure and to define the optimum ventilatory modes to be used.
KeywordsAirway assessment Bronchofiberoscopy Hypoxia Interventional bronchoscopy Mechanical ventilation Noninvasive ventilation Pulmonary disease Respiratory failure
Supported by grants KNW-1-173/K/8/K of the Medical University of Silesia in Katowice and grant N/ST/ZB118/004/1203 of the Medical University of Bialystok in Poland.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest in relation to this article.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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