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Helicobacter pylori Infection, the Gastric Microbiome and Gastric Cancer

  • Joana Pereira-Marques
  • Rui M. Ferreira
  • Ines Pinto-Ribeiro
  • Ceu FigueiredoEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1149)

Abstract

After a long period during which the stomach was considered as an organ where microorganisms could not thrive, Helicobacter pylori was isolated in vitro from gastric biopsies, revolutionising the fields of Microbiology and Gastroenterology. Since then, and with the introduction of high-throughput sequencing technologies that allowed deep characterization of microbial communities, a growing body of knowledge has shown that the stomach contains a diverse microbial community, which is different from that of the oral cavity and of the intestine. Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is the end result of a cascade of events arising in a small fraction of patients colonized with H. pylori. In addition to H. pylori infection and to multiple host and environmental factors that influence disease development, alterations to the composition and function of the normal gastric microbiome, also known as dysbiosis, may also contribute to malignancy. Chronic inflammation of the mucosa in response to H. pylori may alter the gastric environment, paving the way to the growth of a dysbiotic gastric bacterial community. This dysbiotic microbiome may promote the development of gastric cancer by sustaining inflammation and/or inducing genotoxicity. This chapter summarizes what is known about the gastric microbiome in the context of H. pylori-associated gastric cancer, introducing the emerging dimension of the microbiome into the pathogenesis of this highly incident and deadly disease.

Keywords

Helicobacter pylori Gastric microbiome Gastric microbiota Gastric cancer Microbial dysbiosis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

JPM, RMF and IPR have fellowships from Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT; PD/BD/114014/2015, SFRH/BPD/84084/2012, and SFRH/BD/110803/2015, respectively) through Programa Operacional Capital Humano (POCH) and the European Union. JPM’s fellowship is in the framework of FCT’s PhD Programme BiotechHealth (Ref PD/0016/2012). i3S-Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde is funded by Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FEDER) funds through the COMPETE 2020-Operacional Programme for Competitiveness and Internationalisation (POCI), Portugal 2020, and by Portuguese funds through Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)/Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007274).

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joana Pereira-Marques
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rui M. Ferreira
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ines Pinto-Ribeiro
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Ceu Figueiredo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.i3S – Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em SaúdeUniversidade do PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Ipatimup – Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of PortoPortoPortugal
  3. 3.ICBAS – Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel SalazarUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  4. 4.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal

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