Immune Cell Signaling by Helicobacter pylori: Impact on Gastric Pathology

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1149)


Helicobacter pylori represents a highly successful colonizer of the human stomach. Infections with this Gram-negative bacterium can persist lifelong, and although in the majority of cases colonization is asymptomatic, it can trigger pathologies ranging from chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration to gastric cancer. The interaction of the bacteria with the human host modulates immune responses in different ways to enable bacterial survival and persistence. H. pylori uses various pathogenicity-associated factors such as VacA, NapA, CGT, GGT, lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, heptose 1,7-bisphosphate, ADP-heptose, cholesterol glucosides, urease and a type IV secretion system for controlling immune signaling and cellular functions. It appears that H. pylori manipulates multiple extracellular immune receptors such as integrin-β2 (CD18), EGFR, CD74, CD300E, DC-SIGN, MINCLE, TRPM2, T-cell and Toll-like receptors as well as a number of intracellular receptors including NLRP3, NOD1, NOD2, TIFA and ALPK1. Consequently, downstream signaling pathways are hijacked, inducing tolerogenic dendritic cells, inhibiting effector T cell responses and changing the gastrointestinal microbiota. Here, we discuss in detail the interplay of bacterial factors with multiple immuno-regulatory cells and summarize the main immune evasion and persistence strategies employed by H. pylori.


T4SS TLR PAMP PRR Inflammasome 



This work was supported by grant A04 in CRC-1181 of the German Science Foundation (DFG) to S.B.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, Institute for MicrobiologyFriedrich Alexander University Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany

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