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Inhibition of Cross-Reactive Carbohydrate Determinants in Allergy Diagnostics

  • Maciej Grzywnowicz
  • Emilia Majsiak
  • Józef Gaweł
  • Karolina Miśkiewicz
  • Zbigniew Doniec
  • Ryszard KurzawaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1116)

Abstract

Despite being clinically largely irrelevant, antibodies against cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) are an important issue in the in vitro diagnostics, as they may produce false positive or falsely elevated results of the immunoglobulin E class (asIgE) in relation to the actually present level of asIgE. The present chapter demonstrates an effective resolution of this diagnostic issue by the use of a CCD inhibitor in in vitro tests. A synthetic CCD inhibitor, Polycheck® CCD inhibitor, was used in the laboratory diagnostics of 24 children diagnosed with allergic diseases. The anti-CCD antibody content was measured in the serum using a Polycheck® Atopic 30-I panel (Biocheck GmbH; Münster, Germany), a screening assay for the quantitative determination of multiple allergen-specific IgE. We found that the baseline anti-CCD antibody content, without the CCD inhibitor, ranged from 0.7 to 3.5 kU/L in the sera of the majority of 16 out of 24 children. When the CCD inhibitor was applied, the anti-CCD antibody content decreased in 16, remained unchanged in 3, and increased in 5 samples. In samples positive for plant allergens, the asIgE content dropped by an average of 72% when the CCD inhibitor was used in the assay, except the antibodies to tree and grass pollen allergens, for which the asIgE content remained above 100 kU/L. We conclude that the use of a CCD inhibitor in in vitro assays is a viable option to mitigate the influence of anti-CCD antibodies on the measured level of asIgE immunoglobulin, which increase the reliability of testing particularly in cases displaying multiple allergies.

Keywords

Allergy Anti-CCD antibodies CCD inhibitor Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) IgE immunoglobulin 

Notes

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest in relation to this article.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maciej Grzywnowicz
    • 1
  • Emilia Majsiak
    • 1
  • Józef Gaweł
    • 2
  • Karolina Miśkiewicz
    • 2
  • Zbigniew Doniec
    • 2
  • Ryszard Kurzawa
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Polish-Ukrainian Foundation of Medicine DevelopmentLublinPoland
  2. 2.Allergology and Pulmonology ClinicInstitute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Regional Branch in Rabka-ZdrójRabka-ZdrójPoland

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