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Dental Stem Cells and Tooth Regeneration

  • Yi Shuai
  • Yang Ma
  • Tao Guo
  • Liqiang Zhang
  • Rui Yang
  • Meng Qi
  • Wenjia Liu
  • Yan Jin
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1107)

Abstract

Dental stem cells are a minor population of mesenchymal stem cells existing in specialized dental tissues, such as dental pulp, periodontium, apical papilla, dental follicle and so forth. Standard methods have been established to isolate and identify these stem cells. Due to their differentiation potential, these mesenchymal stem cells are promising for tooth repair. Dental stem cells have been emerging to regenerated teeth and periodontal tissues, ascribe to their self-renewal, multipotency and tissue specific differentiation potential. Therefore, dental stem cells based regeneration medicine highlights a promising access to repair damaged dental tissues or generate new teeth. In this review, we provide an overview of human dental stem cells including isolation and identification, involved pathways and outcomes of regenerative researches. A number of basic researches, preclinical studies and clinical trials have investigated that dental stem cells efficiently improve formation of dental specialized structure and healing of periodontal diseases, suggesting a great feasibility and prospect of these approaches in translational medicine of dental regeneration.

Keywords

Dental stem cells Mesenchymal stem cells Tooth regeneration 

Abbreviations

3-D

3-dimensional

ALP

alkaline phosphatase

bFGF

base fibroblast growth factor

BMMSCs

bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

BMP2

bone morphogenetic protein 2

BSP

bone sialoprotein

DFCs

dental follicle cells

DKK1

Dickkopf 1

DMP1

dentin matrix protein1

DNCPs

dentin noncollagenous proteins

DPSCs

dental pulp stem cells

ECM

extracellular matrix

EMD

enamel matrix derivate

GCN5

general control nonrepressed protein 5

G-CSF

granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

GTR

guided tissue regeneration

HA/TCP

hydroxy apatite/tricalcium phosphate

ICAM1

intercellular adhesion molecule 1

IGF-1

insulin-like growth factor-1

iPS

induced pluripotent stem cells

ITGB1

integrin b1

LPS

lipopolysaccharide

MAPK

mitogen-activated protein kinase

MEPE

matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein

OCN

osteocalcin

PDL

periodontal ligament

PDLSCs

periodontal ligament stem cells

PRP

platelet rich plasma

SCAPs

stem cells from apical papilla

SHEDs

stem cells of human exfoliated deciduous teeth

TDM

treated dentin matrix; GMP: Good Manufacturing Practice.

TERT

telomerase reverse transcriptase

TNF-α

tumor necrosis factor-α

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by grants from the Nature Science Foundation of China (81620108007) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31571532).

Disclosures

All the authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of StomatologyNanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military CommandNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology&National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases&Shaanxi International Joint Research Center for Oral DiseasesCenter for Tissue Engineering, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Xi’an Institute of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative MedicineXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Research and Development Center for Tissue EngineeringFourth Military Medical UniversityXi’an,People’s Republic of China
  5. 5.Shanghai BYBO Dental HospitalShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  6. 6.Department of StomatologyPLA Army General HospitalBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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