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The P2X7 Receptor

  • Ronald SluyterEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1051)

Abstract

The P2X7 receptor is a trimeric ion channel gated by extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate. The receptor is present on an increasing number of different cells types including stem, blood, glial, neural, ocular, bone, dental, exocrine, endothelial, muscle, renal and skin cells. The P2X7 receptor induces various downstream events in a cell-specific manner, including inflammatory molecule release, cell proliferation and death, metabolic events, and phagocytosis. As such this receptor plays important roles in heath and disease. Increasing knowledge about the P2X7 receptor has been gained from studies of, but not limited to, protein chemistry including cloning, site-directed mutagenesis, crystal structures and atomic modeling, as well as from studies of primary tissues and transgenic mice. This chapter focuses on the P2X7 receptor itself. This includes the P2RX7 gene and its products including splice and polymorphic variants. This chapter also reviews modulators of P2X7 receptor activation and inhibition, as well as the transcriptional regulation of the P2RX7 gene via its promoter and enhancer regions, and by microRNA and long-coding RNA. Furthermore, this chapter discusses the post-translational modification of the P2X7 receptor by N-linked glycosylation, adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribosylation and palmitoylation. Finally, this chapter reviews interaction partners of the P2X7 receptor, and its cellular localisation and trafficking within cells.

Keywords

Extracellular ATP Gene transcription Interaction partner Ionotropic receptor Ligand-gated ion channel P2RX7 gene P2X7 interactome P2X7 receptor Post-translational modification Purinergic receptor Purinergic signaling Receptor localisation Receptor trafficking Single nucleotide polymorphism Splice variant 

Abbreviations

ADP

adenosine 5′-diphosphate

Ano6

anoctamin 6

ART

ADP-ribosyltransferase

ATP

adenosine 5′-triphosphate

BzATP

2′(3′)-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl) ATP

HEK

human embryonic kidney

HSP90

heat shock protein HSP90-β

IL

interleukin

lncRNA

long-coding RNA

LPS

lipopolysaccharide

miRNA

microRNA

NAD

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NMDG+

N-methyl-D-glucamine

rs

reference SNP

SNP

single nucleotide polymorphism

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares that he has no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the author.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Medical and Molecular BioscienceUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  3. 3.Illawarra Health and Medical Research InstituteWollongongAustralia

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