Single-Cell Expression Profiling and Proteomics of Primordial Germ Cells, Spermatogonial Stem Cells, Adult Germ Stem Cells, and Oocytes

  • Sabine Conrad
  • Hossein Azizi
  • Thomas Skutella
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1083)


The mammalian germ cells, cell assemblies, tissues, and organs during development and maturation have been extensively studied at the tissue level. However, to investigate and understand the fundamental insights at the molecular basis of germ and stem cells, their cell fate plasticity, and determination, it is of most importance to analyze at the large scale on the single-cell level through different biological windows. Here, modern molecular techniques optimized for single-cell analysis, including single fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) or microfluidic high-throughput quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for single-cell gene expression and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS) for protein profiling, have been established and are still getting optimized.

This review aims on describing and discussing recent single-cell expression profiling and proteomics of different types of human germ cells, including primordial germ cells (PGCs), spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), human adult germ stem cells (haGSCs), and oocytes.


Germ cells Single-cell expression profiling Single-cell proteomics 



Fluorescence-activated cell sorting


Human adult germ stem cell


Human embryonic stem cells


Human fibroblast


Human pluripotent stem cell


Human spermatogonial stem cell


Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry


Magnetic activated cell sorting


Mesenchymal stem cells


Human primordial germ cell


Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction


Single-cell RNA sequencing


Human spermatogonial stem cell


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.TübingenGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of BiotechnologyAmol University of Special Modern TechnologiesAmolIran
  3. 3.Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology III, Medical FacultyHeidelberg UniversityHeidelbergGermany

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