Chapter

Pulmonary Infection and Inflammation

Volume 935 of the series Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology pp 89-98

Date:

Metagenomic Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

  • Karol PerlejewskiAffiliated withDepartment of Immunopathology of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Warsaw Medical University
  • , Iwona Bukowska-OśkoAffiliated withDepartment of Immunopathology of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Warsaw Medical University Email author 
  • , Shota NakamuraAffiliated withDepartment of Infection Metagenomics, Genome Information Research Center, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University
  • , Daisuke MotookaAffiliated withDepartment of Infection Metagenomics, Genome Information Research Center, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University
  • , Tomasz StokowyAffiliated withDepartment of Clinical Science, University of Bergen
  • , Rafał PłoskiAffiliated withDepartment of the Medical Genetics, Warsaw Medical University
  • , Małgorzata RydzaniczAffiliated withDepartment of the Medical Genetics, Warsaw Medical University
  • , Beata Zakrzewska-PniewskaAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Warsaw Medical University
  • , Aleksandra Podlecka-PiętowskaAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Warsaw Medical University
    • , Monika NojszewskaAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Warsaw Medical University
    • , Anna GogolAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Warsaw Medical University
    • , Kamila Caraballo CortésAffiliated withDepartment of Immunopathology of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Warsaw Medical University
    • , Urszula DemkowAffiliated withDepartment of Laboratory Medicine and Clinical Immunology of Developmental Age, Medical University of Warsaw
    • , Adam StępieńAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Military Institute of Medicine
    • , Tomasz LaskusAffiliated withDepartment of Immunopathology of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Warsaw Medical University
    • , Marek RadkowskiAffiliated withDepartment of Immunopathology of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Warsaw Medical University

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Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of central nervous system of unknown etiology. However, some infectious agents have been suggested to play a significant role in its pathogenesis. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and metagenomics can be employed to characterize microbiome of MS patients and to identify potential causative pathogens. In this study, 12 patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disorders (IIDD) of the central nervous system were studied: one patient had clinically isolated syndrome, one patient had recurrent optic neuritis, and ten patients had multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, there was one patient with other non-inflammatory neurological disease. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was sampled from all patients. RNA was extracted from CSF and subjected to a single-primer isothermal amplification followed by NGS and comprehensive data analysis. Altogether 441,608,474 reads were obtained and mapped using blastn. In a CSF sample from the patient with clinically isolated syndrome, 11 varicella-zoster virus reads were found. Other than that similar bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and protozoan reads were identified in all samples, indicating a common presence of contamination in metagenomics. In conclusion, we identified varicella zoster virus sequences in one out of the 12 patients with IIDD, which suggests that this virus could be occasionally related to the MS pathogenesis. A widespread bacterial contamination seems inherent to NGS and complicates the interpretation of results.

Keywords

Cerebrospinal fluid Idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disorder Metagenomics Multiple sclerosis Next-generation sequencing