Respirology pp 67-75 | Cite as

Costs of Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  • A. Milewska
  • E. Rysiak
  • I. Zareba
  • A. Holownia
  • R. M. MrozEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 885)


The aim of this study was to analyze direct costs of COPD therapy in relation with clinical course and stage of the disease. Sixty patients with moderate to severe COPD were included into the study. The average cost was taken from institutional data file and was also assessed from a social perspective. Results were presented as average costs per patient per year. Forty two percent of patients was classified as GOLD D category, while categories A, B, and C accounted for 8 %, 27 %, and 23 %, respectively. Approximately 65 % of patients had 2–3 degrees of dyspnea according to the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale. About 60 % of patients underwent two or three exacerbations per year and those patients had one or two co-morbidities diagnosed. Treatment costs almost doubled with disease progression, mainly due to exacerbations. In patients in Group C and Group D with exacerbations the direct costs were several times higher than in group A or B and the difference increased with progression of the disease. In Groups A and B, the costs of treatment of stable disease or with exacerbation were comparable. We conclude that costs of treatment of COPD patients were highest in advanced disease and were strongly related to COPD exacerbations.


COPD Direct costs Exacerbations Medical costs Pharmacoeconomics 



Ilona Zareba was supported by Leading National Research Center (KNOW), Bialystok, Poland.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest in relation to this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Milewska
    • 1
  • E. Rysiak
    • 2
  • I. Zareba
    • 2
  • A. Holownia
    • 3
  • R. M. Mroz
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Respiratory Medicine CenterBialystokPoland
  2. 2.Department of Medicinal ChemistryBialystok Medical UniversityBialystokPoland
  3. 3.Department of Clinical PharmacologyBialystok Medical UniversityBialystokPoland
  4. 4.Department of Lung Diseases and TuberculosisBialystok Medical UniversityBialystokPoland

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