Alterations in the Coagulation System of Active Smokers from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study
Smoking is an important and preventable risk factor of cardiovascular diseases with effects on blood coagulation. Our aim was to analyze the influence of smoking on coagulation parameters. Concentrations or activities of blood coagulation factors were compared in 777 active smokers and 1,178 lifetime non-smokers of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. The association with mortality was examined using Cox regression. The findings show that AS had a tendency toward thrombosis. They displayed significantly higher values for fibrinogen, soluble fibrinogen, factor XIII, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor; whereas FVII, FVIII, FXII, von Willebrand factor (vWF), and thrombomodulin were decreased. The Cox regression analysis showed fibrinogen, FVIII, vWF, thrombomodulin, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor to be independent risk factors for mortality in active smokers with hazard ratios of 1.16 (95 % CI: 1.02–1.31), 1.40 (1.22–1.59), 1.37 (1.22–1.56), 1.19 (1.07–1.31), and 1.22 (1.06–1.40) per increase of one standard deviation. We conclude that active smokers have an increased thrombogenic potential associated with significant changes in the coagulation system. Individual parameters of the coagulation system are independent predictors of mortality. Therefore, parameters of the coagulation system, apart from other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g., lipids or life-style) should be determined for risk prediction in active smokers.
KeywordsCardiovascular disease Hemostasis Mortality Smoking Thrombosis
We extend our appreciation to the participants of the LURIC study; without their collaboration, this article would not have been written. We thank the LURIC study team who were either temporarily or permanently involved in patient recruitment as well as sample and data handling, in addition to the laboratory staff at the Ludwigshafen General Hospital and the Universities of Freiburg and Ulm, Germany. LURIC has received funding from the 6th Framework Program (integrated project Bloodomics, grant LSHM-CT-2004-503485) and from the 7th Framework Program (Atheroremo, grant agreement number 201668 and RiskyCAD, grant agreement number 305739) of the European Union.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest in relation to this article.
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