Chromogranins A and B and Secretogranin II as Prohormones for Regulatory Peptides from the Diffuse Neuroendocrine System

  • Karen B. Helle
Part of the Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation book series (RESULTS, volume 50)


Chromogranin A (CgA), chromogranin B (CgB), and secretogranin II (SgII) belong to a family of uniquely acidic secretory proteins in elements of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. These “granins” are characterized by numerous pairs of basic amino acids as potential sites for intra- and extragranular processing. In response to adequate stimuli, the granins are coreleased with neurotransmitters and hormones and appear in the circulation as potential modulators of homeostatic processes. This review is directed towards functional aspects of the secreted CgA, CgB, and SgII and their biologically active sequences. Widely different effects and targets have been reported for granin-derived peptides. So far, the CgA peptides vasostatin-I, pancreastatin, and catestatin, the CgB peptides CgB1–41 and secretolytin, and the SgII peptide secretoneurin are the most likely candidates for granin-derived regulatory peptides. Most of their effects fit into patterns of direct or indirect modulations of major functions, in particular associated with inflammatory conditions.


Human PMNs Bovine Adrenal Medulla Diffuse Neuroendocrine System Vertebrate Heart Transendothelial Transport 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author is greatly indebted to The Tordis and Fritz Riebers Legacy, Bergen, Norway, for financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedicine, Division of PhysiologyUniversity of BergenBergenNorway

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