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Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal-Contaminated Sites: Eco-environmental Concerns, Field Studies, Sustainability Issues, and Future Prospects

  • Gaurav Saxena
  • Diane Purchase
  • Sikandar I. Mulla
  • Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale
  • Ram Naresh BharagavaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 249)

Abstract

Environmental contamination due to heavy metals (HMs) is of serious ecotoxicological concern worldwide because of their increasing use at industries. Due to non-biodegradable and persistent nature, HMs cause serious soil/water pollution and severe health hazards in living beings upon exposure. HMs can be genotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic in nature even at low concentration. They may also act as endocrine disruptors and induce developmental as well as neurological disorders, and thus, their removal from our natural environment is crucial for the rehabilitation of contaminated sites. To cope with HM pollution, phytoremediation has emerged as a low-cost and eco-sustainable solution to conventional physicochemical cleanup methods that require high capital investment and labor alter soil properties and disturb soil microflora. Phytoremediation is a green technology wherein plants and associated microbes are used to remediate HM-contaminated sites to safeguard the environment and protect public health. Hence, in view of the above, the present paper aims to examine the feasibility of phytoremediation as a sustainable remediation technology for the management of metal-contaminated sites. Therefore, this paper provides an in-depth review on both the conventional and novel phytoremediation approaches; evaluates their efficacy to remove toxic metals from our natural environment; explores current scientific progresses, field experiences, and sustainability issues; and revises world over trends in phytoremediation research for its wider recognition and public acceptance as a sustainable remediation technology for the management of contaminated sites in the twenty-first century.

Keywords

Agromining Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Aromatic plants Constructed wetlands Contaminated sites Endophytes Energy crops Engineered plants Environmental pollution Field studies Heavy metals Hyperaccumulators Molecular mechanism Phytoextraction Phytomining Phytoremediation Phytostabilization Phytotechnologies Phytovolatilization Rhizodegradation Rhizofiltration Toxicity Trophic transfer 

Abbreviations

ABC

ATP-binding cassettes

ACC

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase

Ag

Silver

AMF

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

As

Arsenic

ATSDR

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

BCF

Bioconcentration factor

CA

Citric acid

CAXs

Cation exchangers

Cd

Cadmium

CDF

Cation diffusion facilitators

Co

Cobalt

COPTs

Copper transporters

Cr

Chromium

Cu

Copper

CWs

Constructed wetlands

DDT

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

DIM

Daily intake of metal

DTPA

Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

DW

Dry weight

EDDHA

Ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid)

EDDS

Ethylenediamine-N,N′-disuccinic acid

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EGTA

Ethyleneglycolbis(b-aminoethyl ether),N,N,N0,N-tetraacetic acid

EKF

Electrokinetic field

ETCs

Evapotranspiration caps

EU

European Union

Fe

Iron

GEPs

Genetically engineered plants

GSH

Glutathione

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

HEDTA

N-Hydroxyethylenediaminetriacetic acid

Hg

Mercury

HMA

Heavy-metal ATPase

HMs

Heavy metals

IAA

Indole acetic acid

IARC

International Agency for Research on Cancer

LCA

Life cycle assessment

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

MFC

Microbial fuel cell

MTPs

Membrane transporter proteins

MTs

Metallothioneins

Ni

Nickel

NTA

Nitrilotriacetic acid

PAHs

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons

Pb

Lead

PCBs

Polychlorinated biphenyl

PCs

Phytochelatins

PGPR

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

PMFC

Plant-microbial fuel cell

PMIs

Plant-microbe interactions

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SBMs

Soil beneficial microorganisms

TCE

Trichloroethylene

TF

Translocation factor

US EPA

US Environmental Protection Agency

WHO

World Health Organization

ZIP

Zinc-iron permease

Notes

Acknowledgments

The financial support as “Major Research Projects” (Grant No.: EEQ/2017/000407) from the “Science and Engineering Research Board” (SERB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India (GOI), New Delhi, India, and University Grants Commission (UGC) Fellowship received by Mr. Gaurav Saxena for doctoral studies is duly acknowledged. Authors are also extremely thankful to the anonymous reviewers for valuable comments/suggestions for improvement in the review article.

Declarations of Interest

Authors have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaurav Saxena
    • 1
  • Diane Purchase
    • 2
  • Sikandar I. Mulla
    • 3
  • Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale
    • 4
  • Ram Naresh Bharagava
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory for Bioremediation and Metagenomics Research (LBMR), Department of Environmental Microbiology (DEM)Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University)LucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Science and TechnologyMiddlesex UniversityLondonUK
  3. 3.CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant ConversionInstitute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of SciencesXiamenPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of Food Science and BiotechnologyDongguk University-SeoulGoyang-siRepublic of Korea

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