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pp 1-27 | Cite as

Metal Toxicity and Resistance in Plants and Microorganisms in Terrestrial Ecosystems

  • Ramya Narendrula-Kotha
  • Gabriel Theriault
  • Melanie Mehes-Smith
  • Kersey Kalubi
  • Kabwe NkongoloEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series

Abstract

Metals are major abiotic stressors of many organisms, but their toxicity in plants is not as studied as in microorganisms and animals. Likewise, research in plant responses to metal contamination is sketchy. Candidate genes associated with metal resistance in plants have been recently discovered and characterized. Some mechanisms of plant adaptation to metal stressors have been now decrypted. New knowledge on microbial reaction to metal contamination and the relationship between bacterial, archaeal, and fungal resistance to metals has broadened our understanding of metal homeostasis in living organisms. Recent reviews on metal toxicity and resistance mechanisms focused only on the role of transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and ionomics. This review is a critical analysis of key findings on physiological and genetic processes in plants and microorganisms in responses to soil metal contaminations.

Keywords

Genes associated with resistance to metals in plants and microorganisms Mechanisms of metal resistance in bacteria, archaea, fungi, and plants Metal-induced gene expression Metal toxicity to plants and microorganisms Plant responses to metals 

Abbreviations

γ-GC

Gamma-glutamylcysteine

ABC

ATP-binding cassette

ACC

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase

Ag

Silver

AM

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

APX

Ascorbate peroxidase

As

Arsenic

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

CAT

Catalases

Cd

Cadmium

CDF

Cation diffusion facilitator

CEC

Cation exchange capacity

Co

Cobalt

COPT

Copper transporter

Cu

Copper

CzcABC

Cation-proton antiporter

ECM

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

EPS

Exopolysaccharides

Fe

Iron

GCS

γ-Glutamyl-Cys synthetase

GR

Glutathione reductase

GS

Glutathione synthetase

GSH

Glutathione

GST

Glutathione-s-transferase

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

Hg

Mercury

HgCl2

Mercuric chloride

HMA

Heavy metal ATPase

IREG

Iron-regulated proteins

IRT

Iron-regulated transporter

K

Potassium

Mg

Magnesium

Mn

Manganese

MRP

Multidrug resistance-associated proteins

MT

Metallothionein

MTP

Metal tolerance proteins

NA

Nicotianamine

Na

Sodium

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NAS

Nicotianamine synthase

Ni

Nickel

NRAMP

Natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins

O2

Oxygen

OAS

O-acetyl-l-serine

OH

Hydroxyl radical

Pb

Lead

PC

Phytochelatin

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

S

Sulfur

SAT

Serine acetyltransferase

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TMP

Putative transporter protein

Trr

Thioredoxin reductase

Ur

Uranium

ZAT

Zinc finger protein

ZIP

ZRT, IRT-like proteins

Zn

Zinc

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research is supported by the Natural Research Council of Canada (NSERC).

Conflict of Interest

Authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramya Narendrula-Kotha
    • 1
  • Gabriel Theriault
    • 1
  • Melanie Mehes-Smith
    • 2
  • Kersey Kalubi
    • 1
  • Kabwe Nkongolo
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Biomolecular Sciences ProgramLaurentian UniversitySudburyCanada
  2. 2.Department of BiologyLaurentian UniversitySudburyCanada

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