Cadmium Bioavailability, Uptake, Toxicity and Detoxification in Soil-Plant System

  • Muhammad ShahidEmail author
  • Camille Dumat
  • Sana Khalid
  • Nabeel Khan Niazi
  • Paula M. C. Antunes
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 241)


This review summarizes the findings of the most recent studies, published from 2000 to 2016, which focus on the biogeochemical behavior of Cd in soil-plant systems and its impact on the ecosystem. For animals and people not subjected to a Cd-contaminated environment, consumption of Cd contaminated food (vegetables, cereals, pulses and legumes) is the main source of Cd exposure. As Cd does not have any known biological function, and can further cause serious deleterious effects both in plants and mammalian consumers, cycling of Cd within the soil-plant system is of high global relevance.

The main source of Cd in soil is that which originates as emissions from various industrial processes. Within soil, Cd occurs in various chemical forms which differ greatly with respect to their lability and phytoavailability. Cadmium has a high phytoaccumulation index because of its low adsorption coefficient and high soil–plant mobility and thereby may enter the food chain. Plant uptake of Cd is believed to occur mainly via roots by specific and non-specific transporters of essential nutrients, as no Cd-specific transporter has yet been identified. Within plants, Cd causes phytotoxicity by decreasing nutrient uptake, inhibiting photosynthesis, plant growth and respiration, inducing lipid peroxidation and altering the antioxidant system and functioning of membranes. Plants tackle Cd toxicity via different defense strategies such as decreased Cd uptake or sequestration into vacuoles. In addition, various antioxidants combat Cd-induced overproduction of ROS. Other mechanisms involve the induction of phytochelatins, glutathione and salicylic acid.


Cadmium Bioavailability Soil-plant transfer Toxicity Tolerance 


  1. Abbas G, Saqib M, Akhtar J, Murtaza G, Shahid M (2015) Effect of salinity on rhizosphere acidification and antioxidant activity of two acacia species. Can J For Res 45:124–129Google Scholar
  2. Agami RA, Mohamed GF (2013) Exogenous treatment with indole-3-acetic acid and salicylic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity in wheat seedlings. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 94:164–171Google Scholar
  3. Aghababaei F, Raiesi F (2015) Mycorrhizal fungi and earthworms reduce antioxidant enzyme activities in maize and sunflower plants grown in Cd-polluted soils. Soil Biol Biochem 86:87–97Google Scholar
  4. Agnieszka B, Tomasz C, Jerzy W (2014) Chemical properties and toxicity of soils contaminated by mining activity. Ecotoxicology 23:1234–1244Google Scholar
  5. Ahmad P, Nabi G, Ashraf M (2011) Cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss.] plants can be alleviated by salicylic acid. S Afr J Bot 77:36–44Google Scholar
  6. Ahmad I, Akhtar MJ, Asghar HN, Ghafoor U, Shahid M (2015) Differential effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on maize growth and cadmium uptake. J Plant Growth Regul. doi: 10.1007/s00344-015-9534-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Akhter F, McGarvey B, Macfie SM (2012) Reduced translocation of cadmium from roots is associated with increased production of phytochelatins and their precursors. J Plant Physiol 169:1821–1829Google Scholar
  8. Akoumianakis KA, Passam HC, Barouchas PE, Moustakas NK (2008) Effect of cadmium on yield and cadmium concentration in the edible tissues of endive (Cichorium endivia L.) and rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.). J Food Agric Environ 6:206–209Google Scholar
  9. Ali H, Khan E, Sajad MA (2013) Phytoremediation of heavy metals—concepts and applications. Chemosphere 91:869–881Google Scholar
  10. Almås AR, Singh BR (2001) Plant uptake of cadmium-109 and zinc-65 at different temperature and organic matter levels. J Environ Qual 30:869–877Google Scholar
  11. Al-Sabti K, Metcalfe CD (1995) Fish micronuclei for assessing genotoxicity in water. Mutat Res 343:121–135Google Scholar
  12. Andosch A, Affenzeller MJ, Lütz C, Lütz-Meindl U (2012) A freshwater green alga under cadmium stress: ameliorating calcium effects on ultrastructure and photosynthesis in the unicellular model Micrasterias. J Plant Physiol 169:1489–1500Google Scholar
  13. Andresen E, Küpper H (2013) Cadmium toxicity in plants. Met Ions Life Sci 11:395–413Google Scholar
  14. Anjum NA, Ahmad I, Mohmood I, Pacheco M, Duarte AC, Pereira E, Umar S, Ahmad A, Khan NA, Iqbal M et al (2012) Modulation of glutathione and its related enzymes in plants’ responses to toxic metals and metalloids—a review. Environ Exp Bot 75:307–324Google Scholar
  15. Antolín MC, Muro I, Sánchez-Díaz M (2010) Application of sewage sludge improves growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant activities of nodulated alfalfa plants under drought conditions. Environ Exp Bot 68:75–82Google Scholar
  16. Antunes PMC, Hale BA (2006) The effect of metal diffusion and supply limitations on conditional stability constants determined for durum wheat roots. Plant and Soil 284:229–241Google Scholar
  17. Antunes PMC, Kreager NJ (2014) Lead toxicity to Lemna minor predicted using a metal speciation chemistry approach. Environ Toxicol Chem. doi: 10.1002/etc.2688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Aravind P, Prasad MNV, Malec P, Waloszek A, Strzałka K (2009) Zinc protects Ceratophyllum demersum L. (free-floating hydrophyte) against reactive oxygen species induced by cadmium. J Trace Elem Med Biol 23:50–60Google Scholar
  19. Ardestani MM, van Gestel CAM (2013) Using a toxicokinetics approach to explain the effect of soil pH on cadmium bioavailability to Folsomia candida. Environ Pollut 180:122–130Google Scholar
  20. Armas T, Pinto AP, Varennes A, Mourato MP, Martins LL, Gonçalves MLS, Mota AM (2014) Comparison of cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Brassica juncea in soil and hydroponic cultures. Plant Soil. doi: 10.1007/s11104-014-2330-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Arshad M, Silvestre J, Pinelli E, Kallerhoff J, Kaemmerer M, Tarigo A, Shahid M, Guiresse M, Pradere P, Dumat C (2008) A field study of lead phytoextraction by various scented Pelargonium cultivars. Chemosphere 71:2187–2192Google Scholar
  22. Asgher M, Khan NA, Iqbal M, Khan R, Fatma M, Masood A (2014) Ethylene production is associated with alleviation of cadmium-induced oxidative stress by sulfur in mustard types differing in ethylene sensitivity. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 106:54–61Google Scholar
  23. ATSDR (2012) Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry, U.S. toxicological profile for cadmium. Department of Health and Humans Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia, USAGoogle Scholar
  24. Austruy A, Shahid M, Xiong T, Castrec M, Payre V, Niazi NK, Sabir M, Dumat C (2014) Mechanisms of metal-phosphates formation in the rhizosphere soils of pea and tomato: environmental and sanitary consequences. J Soil Sediments 14:666–678Google Scholar
  25. Bade R, Oh S, Shin WS (2012) Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for the prediction of bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils to earthworm (Eisenia foetida) and oral bioavailable concentrations. Sci Total Environ 416:127–136Google Scholar
  26. Baker NR (1991) A possible role for photosystem II in environmental perturbations of photosynthesis. Physiol Plant 81:563–570Google Scholar
  27. Baker AJM, Reeves RD, Hajar ASM (1994) Heavy metal accumulation and tolerance in British populations of the metallophyte Thlaspi caerulescens J. & C. Presl (Brassicaceae). New Phytol 127:61–68Google Scholar
  28. Baldantoni D, Morra L, Zaccardelli M, Alfani A (2016) Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 123:89–94Google Scholar
  29. Bandyopadhyay A, Mukherjee A (2011) Sensitivity of Allium and Nicotiana in cellular and acellular comet assays to assess differential genotoxicity of direct and indirect acting mutagens. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:860–865Google Scholar
  30. Barber JL, Thomas GO, Kerstiens G, Jones KC (2004) Current issues and uncertainties in the measurement and modelling of air-vegetation exchange and within-plant processing of POPs. Environ Pollut 128:99–138Google Scholar
  31. Barrow NJ (1986) Reaction of anions and cations with variable-charge soils. Adv Agron 38:183–230Google Scholar
  32. Baryla A, Carrier P, Franck F, Coulomb C, Sahut C et al (2001) Leaf chlorosis in oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) grown on cadmium-polluted soil: causes and consequences for photosynthesis and growth. Planta 212:696–709Google Scholar
  33. Bashir H, Ahmad J, Bagheri R, Nauman M, Qureshi MI (2013) Limited sulfur resource forces Arabidopsis thaliana to shift towards non-sulfur tolerance under cadmium stress. Environ Exp Bot 94:19–32Google Scholar
  34. Behboodi BS, Samadi L (2004) Detection of apoptotic bodies and oligonucleosomal DNA fragments in cadmium-treated root apical cells of Allium cepa Linnaeus. Plant Sci 167:411–416Google Scholar
  35. Belimov AA, Kunakova AM, Safronova VI, Stepanok VV, Iudkin LI, Alekseev IV, Kozhemiakov AP (2004) Employment of associative bacteria for the inoculation of barley plants cultivated in soil contaminated with lead and cadmium. Mikrobiologiia 73:118–125Google Scholar
  36. Belimov AA, Hontzeas N, Safronova VI, Demchinskaya SV, Piluzza G, Bullitta S, Glick BR (2005) Cadmium-tolerant plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with the roots of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern.). Soil Biol Biochem 37:241–250Google Scholar
  37. Belkadhi A, DeHaro A, Soengas P, Obregόn S, Cartea ME, Djebali W, Chaïbi W (2013) Salicylic acid improves root antioxidant defense system and total antioxidant capacities of flax subjected to cadmium. OMICS 17:398–406Google Scholar
  38. Belkadhi A, Haro AD, Obregon S, Chaïbi W, Djebali W (2015) Exogenous salicylic acid protects phospholipids against cadmium stress in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 120:102–109Google Scholar
  39. Belkhadi A, Hediji H, Abbes Z, Nouairi I, Barhoumi Z, Zarrouk M, Chaïbi W, Djebali W (2010) Effects of exogenous salicylic acid pre-treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid content in Linum usitatissimum L. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 73:1004–1011Google Scholar
  40. Benavides MP, Gallego SM, Tomaro ML (2005) Cadmium toxicity in plants. Braz J Plant Physiol 17:21–34Google Scholar
  41. Bilodeau-Gauthier S, Paré D, Messier C, Bélanger N (2011) Juvenile growth of hybrid poplars on acidic boreal soil determined by environmental effects of soil preparation, vegetation control, and fertilization. Forest Ecol Manag 261:620–629Google Scholar
  42. Blair IA (2001) Lipid hydroperoxide-mediated DNA damage. Exp Gerontol 36:1473–1481Google Scholar
  43. Bolan N, Mahimairaja S, Kunhikrishnan A, Naidu R (2013) Sorption–bioavailability nexus of arsenic and cadmium in variable-charge soils. J Hazard Mater 261:725–732Google Scholar
  44. Bramley RGV (1990) Review: cadmium in New Zealand agriculture. New Zeal J Agr Res 33:505–519Google Scholar
  45. Breckle SW, Kahle H (1991) Geobotanyandecology. Prog Bot 52:391–406Google Scholar
  46. Burau RG, Kaita KY, Inouye TS, Miller M (1973) Chemical analysis of soil samples from the Salinis Valley, California for cadmium, zinc, and phosphate. Report to state water resources control board. University of California, Davis, DavisGoogle Scholar
  47. Cabaniss SE, Zhou Q, Maurice P, Chin Y-P, Aiken GR (2000) A log-normal distribution model for the molecular weight of aquatic fulvic acids. Environ Sci Technol 34:1103–1109Google Scholar
  48. Calabrese EJ, Baldwin LA (1999) Chemical hormesis: its historical foundations as biological hypothesis. Toxicol Pathol 27:195–216Google Scholar
  49. Calabrese EJ, Baldwin LA (2003a) Toxicology rethinks its central belief: hormesis demands a reappraisal of the way risks are assessed. Nature 421:691–692Google Scholar
  50. Calabrese EJ, Baldwin LA (2003b) The hormetic dose-response model is more common than the threshold model in toxicology. Toxicol Sci 71:246–250Google Scholar
  51. Calace N, Petronio BM (2004) The role of organic matter on metal toxicity and bio-availability. Ann Chim 94:487–493Google Scholar
  52. Calderón-Preciado D, Matamoros V, Biel C, Save R, Bayona JM (2013) Foliar sorption of emerging and priority contaminants under controlled conditions. J Hazard Mater 260:176–182Google Scholar
  53. Castillo-Michel HA, Hernandez N, Martinez-Martinez A, Parsons JG, Peralta-Videa JR, Gardea-Torresdey JL (2009) Coordination and speciation of cadmium in corn seedlings and its effects on macro- and micronutrients uptake. Plant Physiol Biochem 47:608–614Google Scholar
  54. Chamel A, Gaillardon P, Gauvrit C (1991) La pénétration foliaire des herbicides. In: Les herbicides: mode d’action et principes d’utilisation. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique 75007, Paris, pp 8–49Google Scholar
  55. Chaney RL (2012) Chapter two—food safety issues for mineral and organic fertilizers. In : Donald L. Sparks (ed) Adv Agron. Academic, pp 51–116Google Scholar
  56. Chao Y-Y, Hong C-Y, Kao CH (2010) The decline in ascorbic acid content is associated with cadmium toxicity of rice seedlings. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:374–381Google Scholar
  57. Chavez E, He ZL, Stoffella PJ, Mylavarapu RS, Li YC, Moyano B, Baligar VC (2015) Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador. Sci Total Environ 533:205–214Google Scholar
  58. Chekmeneva E, Gusmão R, Díaz-Cruz JM, Ariño C, Esteban M (2011) From cysteine to longer chain thiols: thermodynamic analysis of cadmium binding by phytochelatins and their fragments. Metallomics 3:838–846Google Scholar
  59. Chen L, Guo Y, Yang L, Wang Q (2007) SEC-ICP-MS and ESI-MS/MS for analyzing in vitro and in vivo Cd-phytochelatin complexes in a Cd-hyperaccumulator Brassica chinensis. J Anal At Spectrom 22:1403–1408Google Scholar
  60. Chen F, Wang F, Wu F, Mao W, Zhang G, Zhou M (2010) Modulation of exogenous glutathione in antioxidant defense system against Cd stress in the two barley genotypes differing in Cd tolerance. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:663–672Google Scholar
  61. Chen JH, Ni JC, Liu QL, Li SX (2012) Adsorption behavior of Cd(II) ions on humic acid-immobilized sodium alginate and hydroxyl ethyl cellulose blending porous composite membrane adsorbent. Desalination 285:54–61Google Scholar
  62. Chen C, Zhou Q, Cai Z (2014a) Effect of soil HHCB on cadmium accumulation and phytotoxicity in wheat seedlings. Ecotoxicology 23:1996–2004Google Scholar
  63. Chen Y, Wu P, Shao Y, Ying Y (2014b) Health risk assessment of heavy metals in vegetables grown around battery production area. Sci Agric 71:126–132Google Scholar
  64. Cherif J, Mediouni C, Ben Ammar W, Jemal F (2011) Interactions of zinc and cadmium toxicity in their effects on growth and in antioxidative systems in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum). J Environ Sci (China) 23:837–844Google Scholar
  65. Chmielowska-Bąk J, Gzyl J, Rucińska-Sobkowiak R, Arasimowicz-Jelonek M, Deckert J (2014) The new insights into cadmium sensing. Front Plant Sci 5:245Google Scholar
  66. Choppala G, Bolan N, Bibi S, Iqbal M, Rengel Z, Kunhikrishnan A, Ashwath N, Ok YS (2014) Cellular mechanisms in higher plants governing tolerance to cadmium toxicity. Crit Rev Plant Sci 33:374–391Google Scholar
  67. Chou T-S, Chao Y-Y, Kao CH (2012) Involvement of hydrogen peroxide in heat shock- and cadmium-induced expression of ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in leaves of rice seedlings. J Plant Physiol 169:478–486Google Scholar
  68. Circu ML, Aw TY (2010) Reactive oxygen species, cellular redox systems, and apoptosis. Free Radic Biol Med 48:749–762Google Scholar
  69. Clemens S, Antosiewicz DM, Ward JM, Schachtman DP, Schroeder JI (1998) The plant cDNA LCT1 mediates the uptake of calcium and cadmium in yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:12043–12048Google Scholar
  70. Clemens S, Aarts MGM, Thomine S, Verbruggen N (2013) The key to preventing slow cadmium poisoning. Trends Plant Sci 18:92–99Google Scholar
  71. Cobbett CS (2000) Phytochelatins and their roles in heavy metal detoxification. Plant Physiol 123:825–832Google Scholar
  72. Cobelo-García A, Santos-Echeandía J, Prego R, Nieto O (2005) Direct simultaneous determination of Cu, Ni and V in seawater using adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry with mixed ligands. Electroanalysis 17:906–911Google Scholar
  73. Cohen CK, Fox TC, Garvin DF, Kochian LV (1998) The role of iron-deficiency stress responses in stimulating heavy-metal transport in plants. Plant Physiol 116:1063–1072Google Scholar
  74. Corguinha APB, Gonçalves VC, de Souza GA, de Lima WEA, Penido ES, Pinto CABP, Francisco EAB, Guilherme LRG (2012) Cadmium in potato and soybeans: do phosphate fertilization and soil management systems play a role? J Food Comp Anal 27:32–37Google Scholar
  75. Cortés‐Martínez R, Martínez‐Miranda V, Solache‐Ríos M, García‐Sosa I (2004) Evaluation of natural and surfactant‐modified zeolites in the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions. Sep Sci Technol 39(11):2711–2730Google Scholar
  76. Curie C, Cassin G, Couch D, Divol F, Higuchi K, Le Jean M, Misson J, Schikora A, Czernic P, Mari S (2009) Metal movement within the plant: contribution of nicotianamine and yellow stripe 1-like transporters. Ann Bot 103:1–11Google Scholar
  77. Cuypers A, Smeets K, Ruytinx J, Opdenakker K, Keunen E, Remans T, Horemans N, Vanhoudt N, Van Sanden S, Van Belleghem F et al (2011) The cellular redox state as a modulator in cadmium and copper responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. J Plant Physiol 168:309–316Google Scholar
  78. Dabrin A, Durand CL, Garric J, Geffard O, Ferrari BJD, Coquery M (2012) Coupling geochemical and biological approaches to assess the availability of cadmium in freshwater sediment. Sci Total Environ 424:308–315Google Scholar
  79. Dahmani-Muller H, van Oort F, Balabane M (2001) Metal extraction by Arabidopsis halleri grown on an unpolluted soil amended with various metal-bearing solids: a pot experiment. Environ Pollut 114:77–84Google Scholar
  80. Dary M, Chamber-Pérez MA, Palomares AJ, Pajuelo E (2010) “In situ” phytostabilisation of heavy metal polluted soils using Lupinus luteus inoculated with metal resistant plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria. J Hazard Mater 177:323–330Google Scholar
  81. Das P, Samantaray S, Rout GR (1998) Studies on cadmium toxicity in plants: a review. Environ Pollut 98:29–36Google Scholar
  82. Daud MK, Quiling H, Lei M, Ali B, Zhu SJ (2015) Ultrastructural, metabolic and proteomic changes in leaves of upland cotton in response to cadmium stress. Chemosphere 120:309–320Google Scholar
  83. Degryse F, Shahbazi A, Verheyen L, Smolders E (2012) Diffusion limitations in root uptake of cadmium and zinc, but not nickel, and resulting bias in the Michaelis constant. Plant Physiol 160:1097–1109Google Scholar
  84. Del Río LA (2011) Peroxisomes as a cellular source of reactive nitrogen species signal molecules. Arch Biochem Biophys 506:1–11Google Scholar
  85. Delmail D, Labrousse P, Hourdin P, Larcher L, Moesch C, Botineau M (2011) Physiological, anatomical and phenotypical effects of a cadmium stress in different-aged chlorophyllian organs of Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC (Haloragaceae). Environ Exp Bot 72:174–181Google Scholar
  86. Dempsey DMA, Vlot AC, Wildermuth MC, Klessiga DF (2011) Salicylic acid biosynthesis and metabolism. Arabidopsis Book 9:1–156Google Scholar
  87. Deng X, Xia Y, Hu W, Zhang H, Shen Z (2010) Cadmium-induced oxidative damage and protective effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine against cadmium toxicity in Solanum nigrum L. J Hazard Mater 180:722–729Google Scholar
  88. Deng G, Li M, Li H, Yin L, Li W (2014) Exposure to cadmium causes declines in growth and photosynthesis in the endangered aquatic fern (Ceratopteris pteridoides). Aquat Bot 112:23–32Google Scholar
  89. Dguimi MH, Debouba M, Ghorbel MH, Gouia H (2009) Tissue-specific cadmium accumulation and its effects on nitrogen metabolism in tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum, Bureley v. Fb9). C R Biol 332:58–68Google Scholar
  90. Dong J, Wu F, Zhang G (2006) Influence of cadmium on antioxidant capacity and four microelement concentrations in tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum). Chemosphere 64:1659–1666Google Scholar
  91. Douay F, Pruvot C, Waterlot C, Fritsch C, Fourrier H, Loriette A, Bidar G, Grand C, de Vaufleury A, Scheifler R (2009) Contamination of woody habitat soils around a former lead smelter in the North of France. Sci Total Environ 407:5564–5577Google Scholar
  92. Douchiche O, Chaïbi W, Morvan C (2012) Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of mature flax, cv. Hermes: contribution of the basal stem compared to the root. J Hazard Mater 235–236:101–107Google Scholar
  93. Drazic G, Mihailovic N (2005) Modification of cadmium toxicity in soybean seedlings by salicylic acid. Plant Sci 168:511–517Google Scholar
  94. Dumat C, Quenea K, Bermond A, Toinen S, Benedetti MF (2006) Study of the trace metal ion influence on the turnover of soil organic matter in cultivated contaminated soils. Environ Pollut 142:521–529Google Scholar
  95. Duplay J, Semhi K, Errais E, Imfeld G, Babcsanyi I, Perrone T (2014) Copper, zinc, lead and cadmium bioavailability and retention in vineyard soils (Rouffach, France): the impact of cultural practices. Geoderma 230–231:318–328Google Scholar
  96. Duponnois R, Kisa M, Assigbetse K, Prin Y, Thioulouse J, Issartel M, Moulin P, Lepage M (2006) Fluorescent pseudomonads occuring in Macrotermes subhyalinus mound structures decrease Cd toxicity and improve its accumulation in sorghum plants. Sci Total Environ 370:391–400Google Scholar
  97. Ďurčeková K, Huttová J, Mistrík I, Ollé M, Tamás L (2007) Cadmium induces premature xylogenesis in barley roots. Plant and Soil 290:61–68Google Scholar
  98. Ebbs S, Lau I, Ahner B, Kochian L (2002) Phytochelatin synthesis is not responsible for Cd tolerance in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. Presl). Planta 214:635–640Google Scholar
  99. Egle K, Römer W, Keller H (2003) Exudation of low molecular weight organic acids by Lupinus albus L., Lupinus angustifolius L. and Lupinus luteus L. as affected by phosphorus supply. Agronomie 23:511–518Google Scholar
  100. Ehsan S, Ali S, Noureen S, Mahmood K, Farid M, Ishaque W, Shakoor MB, Rizwan M (2014) Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of cadmium by Brassica napus L. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 106:164–172Google Scholar
  101. Eikmann T, Kloke A, Eikmann S (1993) Environmental medical and toxicological assessment of soil contamination. In: Arendt F, Annokkée GJ, Bosman R, Brink WJVD (eds) Contaminated soil’93. Springer, Netherlands, pp 327–336Google Scholar
  102. El-Boshy ME, Risha EF, Abdelhamid FM, Mubarak MS, Hadda TB (2014) Protective effects of selenium against cadmium induced hematological disturbances, immunosuppressive, oxidative stress and hepatorenal damage in rats. J Trace Elem Med Biol. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2014.05.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Emsley J (2011) Nature’s building blocks: an A-Z guide to the elements. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  104. Epelde L, Becerril JM, Barrutia O, González-Oreja JA, Garbisu C (2010) Interactions between plant and rhizosphere microbial communities in a metalliferous soil. Environ Pollut 158:1576–1583Google Scholar
  105. Fang Y, Sun X, Yang W, Ma N, Xin Z, Fu J, Liu X, Liu M, Mariga AM, Zhu X et al (2014) Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China. Food Chem 147:147–151Google Scholar
  106. FAO/WHO (1978) Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on food additives. Technical report series. 631. GenevaGoogle Scholar
  107. FAO/WHO (2006) Joint FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme, codex committee on food additives and contaminants, 38th session. The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  108. Farooq MA, Ali S, Hameed A, Ishaque W, Mahmood K, Iqbal Z (2013) Alleviation of cadmium toxicity by silicon is related to elevated photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes; suppressed cadmium uptake and oxidative stress in cotton. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 96:242–249Google Scholar
  109. Fässler E, Plaza S, Pairraud A, Gupta SK, Robinson B, Schulin R (2011) Expression of selected genes involved in cadmium detoxification in tobacco plants grown on a sulphur-amended metal-contaminated field. Environ Exp Bot 70:158–165Google Scholar
  110. Feng Z, Hu W, Amin S, Tang MS (2003) Mutational spectrum and genotoxicity of the major lipid peroxidation product, trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, induced DNA adducts in nucleotide excision repair-proficient and -deficient human cells. Biochemistry 42:7848–7854Google Scholar
  111. Feng-tao L, Jian-min Q, Gao-yang Z, Li-hui L, Ping-ping F, Ai-fen T, Jian-tang X (2013) Effect of cadmium stress on the growth, antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in two kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant seedlings. J Integr Agri 12:610–620Google Scholar
  112. Fidalgo F, Freitas R, Ferreira R, Pessoa AM, Teixeira J (2011) Solanum nigrum L. antioxidant defence system isozymes are regulated transcriptionally and posttranslationally in Cd-induced stress. Environ Exp Bot 72:312–319Google Scholar
  113. Filipič M (2012) Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability. Mutat Res 733:69–77Google Scholar
  114. Flores-Caceres ML, Hattab S, Hattab S, Boussetta H, Banni M, Hernndez LE (2015) Specific mechanisms of tolerance to copper and cadmium are compromised by a limited concentration of glutathione in alfalfa plants. Plant Sci 233:165–173Google Scholar
  115. Fodor E, Szabó-Nagy A, Erdei L (1995) The effects of cadmium on the fluidity and H+-ATPase activity of plasma membrane from sunflower and wheat roots. J Plant Physiol 147(1):87–92Google Scholar
  116. Foltête A-S, Masfaraud J-F, Férard J-F, Cotelle S (2012) Is there a relationship between early genotoxicity and life-history traits in Vicia faba exposed to cadmium-spiked soils? Mutat Res 747:159–163Google Scholar
  117. Foucault Y, Lévêque T, Xiong T, Schreck E, Austruy A, Shahid M, Dumat C (2013) Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment. Chemosphere 93:1430–1435Google Scholar
  118. Foyer CH, Lopez-Delgado H, Dat JF, Scott IM (1997) Hydrogen peroxide- and glutathione-associated mechanisms of acclimatory stress tolerance and signalling. Physiol Plant 100:241–254Google Scholar
  119. Fritsch C, Giraudoux P, Cœurdassier M, Douay F, Raoul F, Pruvot C, Waterlot C, de Vaufleury A, Scheifler R (2010) Spatial distribution of metals in smelter-impacted soils of woody habitats: influence of landscape and soil properties, and risk for wildlife. Chemosphere 81:141–155Google Scholar
  120. Fujimaki S, Suzui N, Ishioka NS, Kawachi N, Ito S, Chino M, Nakamura S (2010) Tracing cadmium from culture to spikelet: noninvasive imaging and quantitative characterization of absorption, transport, and accumulation of cadmium in an intact rice plant1[W][OA]. Plant Physiol 152:1796–1806Google Scholar
  121. Gad SC (2014) Cadmium. In: Wexler P (ed) Encycloped toxicol, 3rd edn. Academic, Oxford, pp 613–616Google Scholar
  122. Gallego SM, Benavídes MP, Tomaro ML (1996) Effect of heavy metal ion excess on sunflower leaves: evidence for involvement of oxidative stress. Plant Sci 121:151–159Google Scholar
  123. Gallego SM, Pena LB, Barcia RA, Azpilicueta CE, Iannone MF, Rosales EP, Zawoznik MS, Groppa MD, Benavides MP (2012) Unravelling cadmium toxicity and tolerance in plants: insight into regulatory mechanisms. Environ Exp Bot 83:33–46Google Scholar
  124. Gao Z, Bandosz TJ, Zhao Z, Han M, Qiu J (2009) Investigation of factors affecting adsorption of transition metals on oxidized carbon nanotubes. J Hazard Mater 167:357–365Google Scholar
  125. Garate A, Ramos I, Manzanares M, Lucena JJ (1993) Cadmium uptake and distribution in three cultivars of Lactuca sp. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 50:709–716Google Scholar
  126. Garnier L, Simon-Plas F, Thuleau P, Agnel J-P, Blein J-P, Ranjeva R, Montillet J-L (2006) Cadmium affects tobacco cells by a series of three waves of reactive oxygen species that contribute to cytotoxicity. Plant Cell Environ 29:1956–1969Google Scholar
  127. Gill SS, Tuteja N (2010) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:909–930Google Scholar
  128. Gill SS, Khan NA, Tuteja N (2012) Cadmium at high dose perturbs growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism while at low dose it up regulates sulfur assimilation and antioxidant machinery in garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.). Plant Sci 182:112–120Google Scholar
  129. Gill SS, Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Macovei A, Tuteja N (2013) Importance of nitric oxide in cadmium stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 63:254–261Google Scholar
  130. Goix S, Lévêque T, Xiong T-T, Schreck E, Baeza-Squiban A, Geret F, Uzu G, Austruy A, Dumat C (2014) Environmental and health impacts of fine and ultrafine metallic particles: assessment of threat scores. Environ Res 133:185–194Google Scholar
  131. Gonçalves JF, Becker AG, Cargnelutti D, Tabaldi LA, Pereira LB, Battisti V, Spanevello RM, Morsch VM, Nicoloso FT, Schetinger MRC (2007) Cadmium toxicity causes oxidative stress and induces response of the antioxidant system in cucumber seedlings. Braz J Plant Physiol 19:223–232Google Scholar
  132. Gonçalves JF, Antes FG, Maldaner J, Pereira LB, Tabaldi LA, Rauber R, Rossato LV, Bisognin DA, Dressler VL, Flores EM et al (2009) Cadmium and mineral nutrient accumulation in potato plantlets grown under cadmium stress in two different experimental culture conditions. Plant Physiol Biochem 47:814–821Google Scholar
  133. Gonneau C, Genevois N, Frérot H, Sirguey C, Sterckeman T (2014) Variation of trace metal accumulation, major nutrient uptake and growth parameters and their correlations in 22 populations of Noccaea caerulescens. Plant and Soil 384:271–287Google Scholar
  134. Gratão PL, Monteiro CC, Rossi ML, Martinelli AP, Peres LEP, Medici LO, Lea PJ, Azevedo RA (2009) Differential ultrastructural changes in tomato hormonal mutants exposed to cadmium. Environ Exp Bot 67:387–394Google Scholar
  135. Groppa MD, Rosales EP, Iannone MF, Benavides MP (2008) Nitric oxide, polyamines and Cd-induced phytotoxicity in wheat roots. Phytochemistry 69:2609–2615Google Scholar
  136. Gu C-S, Liu L, Zhao Y-H, Deng Y, Zhu X, Huang S-Z (2014) Overexpression of Iris. lactea var. chinensis metallothionein llMT2a enhances cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 105:22–28Google Scholar
  137. Guan Z, Chai T, Zhang Y, Xu J, Wei W (2009) Enhancement of Cd tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing a Cd-induced catalase cDNA. Chemosphere 76:623–630Google Scholar
  138. Guerrero NRV, Nahabedian DE, Wider EA (2000) Analysis of some factors that may modify the bioavailability of cadmium and lead by Biomphalaria glabrata. Environ Toxicol Chem 19(11):2762–2768Google Scholar
  139. Guo B, Liang YC, Zhu YG, Zhao FJ (2007) Role of salicylic acid in alleviating oxidative damage in rice roots (Oryza sativa) subjected to cadmium stress. Environ Pollut 147:743–749Google Scholar
  140. Guo B, Liang Y, Zhu Y (2009) Does salicylic acid regulate antioxidant defense system, cell death, cadmium uptake and partitioning to acquire cadmium tolerance in rice? J Plant Physiol 166:20–31Google Scholar
  141. Guo H, Tian R, Zhu J, Zhou H, Pei D, Wang X (2012) Combined cadmium and elevated ozone affect concentrations of cadmium and antioxidant systems in wheat under fully open-air conditions. J Hazard Mater 209–210:27–33Google Scholar
  142. Gustafsson JP (2008) Visual MINTEQ. Version 2.60. Stockholm.
  143. Hagin N, Kono M (1955) A study on the cause of Itai-itai disease. In: Proceedings of the17th meeting of the Japanese Society of Clinical Surgeons (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  144. Hanikenne M, Talke IN, Haydon MJ, Lanz C, Nolte A, Motte P, Kroymann J, Weigel D, Krämer U (2008) Evolution of metal hyperaccumulation required cis-regulatory changes and triplication of HMA4. Nature 453:391–395Google Scholar
  145. Harrison RM, Chirgawi MB (1989) The assessment of air and soil as contributors of some trace metals to vegetable plants I: use of a filtered air growth cabinet. Sci Total Environ 83:13–34Google Scholar
  146. Hasan SA, Fariduddin Q, Ali B, Hayat S, Ahmad A (2009) Cadmium: toxicity and tolerance in plants. J Environ Biol 30:165–174Google Scholar
  147. Hasan SA, Hayat S, Ahmad A (2011) Brassinosteroids protect photosynthetic machinery against the cadmium induced oxidative stress in two tomato cultivars. Chemosphere 84:1446–1451Google Scholar
  148. Hayat S, Alyemeni MN, Hasan SA (2012) Foliar spray of brassinosteroid enhances yield and quality of Solanum lycopersicum under cadmium stress. Saudi J Biol Sci 19:325–335Google Scholar
  149. Haydon MJ, Cobbett CS (2007) Transporters of ligands for essential metal ions in plants. New Phytol 174:499–506Google Scholar
  150. He HP, Guo JG, Zhu JX, Yang D (2001) An experimental study of adsorption capacity of Montmorillonite, Kaolinite and Illite for heavy metals. Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 4:042Google Scholar
  151. Hédiji H, Djebali W, Belkadhi A, Cabasson C, Moing A, Rolin D (2015) Impact of long-term cadmium exposure on mineral content of Solanum lycopersicum plants: consequences on fruit production. S Afr J Bot 97:176–181Google Scholar
  152. Heinrichs H, Schulz-Dobrick B, Wedepohl KH (1980) Terrestrial geochemistry of Cd, Bi, Tl, Pb, Zn and Rb. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 44:1519–1533Google Scholar
  153. Helios-Rybicka E, Wójcik R (2012) Competitive sorption/desorption of Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cr by clay-bearing mining wastes. Appl Clay Sci 65–66:6–13Google Scholar
  154. Herbette S, Taconnat L, Hugouvieux V, Piette L, Magniette MLM, Cuine S, Auroy P, Richaud P, Forestier C, Bourguignon J et al (2006) Genome-wide transcriptome profiling of the early cadmium response of Arabidopsis roots and shoots. Biochimie 88:1751–1765Google Scholar
  155. Hernandez LE, Carpena‐Ruiz R, Gárate A (1996) Alterations in the mineral nutrition of pea seedlings exposed to cadmium. J Plant Nutr 19:1581–1598Google Scholar
  156. Heyno E, Klose C, Krieger-Liszkay A (2008) Origin of cadmium-induced reactive oxygen species production: mitochondrial electron transfer versus plasma membrane NADPH oxidase. New Phytol 179:687–699Google Scholar
  157. Hirsch D, Banin A (1990) Cadmium speciation in soil solutions. J Environ Qual 19:366–372Google Scholar
  158. Hodoshima H, Enomoto Y, Shoji K, Shimada H, Goto F, Yoshihara T (2007) Differential regulation of cadmium-inducible expression of iron-deficiency-responsive genes in tobacco and barley. Physiol Plant 129:622–634Google Scholar
  159. Holmgren GGS, Meyer MW, Chaney RL, Daniels RB (1993) Cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, and nickel in agricultural soils of the United States of America. J Environ Qual 22:335–348Google Scholar
  160. Hossain Z, Makino T, Komatsu S (2012) Proteomic study of β-aminobutyric acid-mediated cadmium stress alleviation in soybean. J Proteomics 75:4151–4164Google Scholar
  161. Hovmand MF, Tjell JC, Mosbaek H (1983) Plant uptake of airborne cadmium. Environ Pollut Ser A Ecol Biol 30:27–38Google Scholar
  162. Howladar M (2014) A novel Moringa oleifera leaf extractcan mitigate the stress effects of salinity and cadmium in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants seed. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 100:69–75Google Scholar
  163. Hu Y, Norton GJ, Duan G, Huang Y, Liu Y (2014) Effect of selenium fertilization on the accumulation of cadmium and lead in rice plants. Plant and Soil 384:131–140Google Scholar
  164. Huang J, Zhang Y, Peng JS, Zhong C, Yi HY, Ow DW, Gong JM (2012) Fission yeast HMT1 lowers seed cadmium through phytochelatin-dependent vacuolar sequestration in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 158:1779–1788Google Scholar
  165. Huguet S, Bert V, Laboudigue A, Barthès V, Isaure M-P, Llorens I, Schat H, Sarret G (2012) Cd speciation and localization in the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri. Environ Exp Bot 82:54–65Google Scholar
  166. Iannone MF, Rosales EP, Groppa MD, Benavides MP (2010) Reactive oxygen species formation and cell death in catalase-deficient tobacco leaf disks exposed to cadmium. Protoplasma 245:15–27Google Scholar
  167. Iannone MF, Groppa MD, Benavides MP (2015) Cadmium induces different biochemical responses in wild type and catalase-deficient tobacco plants. Environ Exp Bot 109:201–211Google Scholar
  168. Inglot P, Lewinska A, Potocki L, Oklejewicz B, Tabecka-Lonczynska A, Koziorowski M, Bugno-Poniewierska M, Bartosz G, Wnuk M (2012) Cadmium-induced changes in genomic DNA-methylation status increase aneuploidy events in a pig Robertsonian translocation model. Mutat Res 747:182–189Google Scholar
  169. Inouhe M, Ito R, Ito S, Sasada N, Tohoyama H, Joho M (2000) Azuki bean cells are hypersensitive to cadmium and do not synthesize phytochelatins. Plant Physiol 123:1029–1036Google Scholar
  170. Iqbal N, Masood A, Nazar R, Syeed S, Khan NA (2010) Photosynthesis, growth and antioxidant metabolism in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars differing in cadmium tolerance. Agricult Sci China 9:519–527Google Scholar
  171. Irfan M, Ahmad A, Hayat S (2014) Effect of cadmium on the growth and antioxidant enzymes in two varieties of Brassica juncea. Saudi J Biol Sci 21:125–131Google Scholar
  172. Isaure M-P, Fayard B, Sarret G, Pairis S, Bourguignon J (2006) Localization and chemical forms of cadmium in plant samples by combining analytical electron microscopy and X-ray spectromicroscopy. Spectrochim Acta Part B 61:1242–1252Google Scholar
  173. Ivanov VV (1996) Ekologicheskaya geokhimia elementov (in Russian). Ekologia, kn. 1–6, Moskva. Environmental Geochemistry of Elements Ecology, 1–6:MoscowGoogle Scholar
  174. Jakubowska D, Janicka-Russak M, Kabała K, Migocka M, Reda M (2015) Modification of plasma membrane NADPH oxidase activity in cucumber seedling roots in response to cadmium stress. Plant Sci 234:50–59Google Scholar
  175. Järup L, Akesson A (2009) Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 238:201–208Google Scholar
  176. Jia L, He X, Chen W, Liu Z, Huang Y, Yu S (2013) Hormesis phenomena under Cd stress in a hyperaccumulator Lonicera japonica Thunb. Ecotoxicology 22:476–485Google Scholar
  177. Jiang XJ, Luo YM, Liu Q, Liu SL, Zhao QG (2004) Effects of cadmium on nutrient uptake and translocation by Indian Mustard. Environ Geochem Health 26:319–324Google Scholar
  178. Jiang J, Xu R, Jiang T, Li Z (2012) Immobilization of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) by the addition of rice straw derived biochar to a simulated polluted Ultisol. J Hazard Mater 229–230:145–150Google Scholar
  179. Jiao W, Chen W, Chang AC, Page AL (2012) Environmental risks of trace elements associated with long-term phosphate fertilizers applications: a review. Environ Pollut 168:44–53Google Scholar
  180. Jin YH, Clark AB, Slebos RJC, Al-Refai H, Taylor JA, Kunkel TA, Resnick MA, Gordenin DA (2003) Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair. Nat Genet 34:326–329Google Scholar
  181. Jin CW, Mao QQ, Luo BF, Lin XY, Du ST (2013) Mutation of mpk6 enhances cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis plants by alleviating oxidative stress. Plant and Soil 371:387–396Google Scholar
  182. Joubert AVP, Lucas L, Garrido F, Joulian C, Jauzein M (2007) Effect of temperature, gas phase composition, pH and microbial activity on As, Zn, Pb and Cd mobility in selected soils in the Ebro and Meuse Basins in the context of global change. Environ Pollut 148:749–758Google Scholar
  183. Kabata-Pendias A (1993) Behavioural properties of trace metals in soils. Appl Geochem 8, Supplement 2:3–9Google Scholar
  184. Kabata-Pendias A, Sadurski W (2004) Trace elements and compounds in soil. In: Merian E, Anke M, Ihnat M, Stoeppler M (eds) Elements and their compounds in the environment, 2nd edn. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 79–99Google Scholar
  185. Karagiannidis N, Nikolaou N (2000) Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on heavy metal (Pb and Cd) uptake, growth, and chemical composition of Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Razaki). Am J Enolog Viticult 51:269–275Google Scholar
  186. Keunen K, Remans T, Opdenakker K, Jozefczak M, Gielen H, Guisez Y, Vangronsveld J, Cuypers A (2013) A mutant of the Arabidopsis thaliana LIPOXYGENASE1 gene shows altered signalling and oxidative stress related responses after cadmium exposure. Plant Physiol Biochem 63:272–280Google Scholar
  187. Khan MIR, Nazir F, Asgher M, Per TS, Khan NA (2015) Selenium and sulfur influence ethylene formation and alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress by improving proline and glutathione production in wheat. J Plant Physiol 173:9–18Google Scholar
  188. Khoudi H, Maatar Y, Gouiaa S, Masmoudi K (2012) Transgenic tobacco plants expressing ectopically wheat H+-pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase) gene TaVP1 show enhanced accumulation and tolerance to cadmium. J Plant Physiol 169:98–103Google Scholar
  189. Kabata-Pendias (2011) Trace elements in soils and plants. 4th edition, pp 1–505Google Scholar
  190. Kopittke PM, Blamey FPC, Menzies NW (2010) Toxicity of Cd to signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth.). Plant and Soil 330:515–523Google Scholar
  191. Kopyra M, Gwóźdź EA (2003) Nitric oxide stimulates seed germination and counteracts the inhibitory effect of heavy metals and salinity on root growth of Lupinus luteus. Plant Physiol Biochem 41:1011–1017Google Scholar
  192. Koren S, Arčon I, Kump P, Nečemer M, Vogel-Mikuš K (2013) Influence of CdCl2 and CdSO4 supplementation on Cd distribution and ligand environment in leaves of the Cd hyperaccumulator Noccaea (Thlaspi) praecox. Plant and Soil 370:125–148Google Scholar
  193. Körpe DA, Aras S (2011) Evaluation of copper-induced stress on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) seedlings at the molecular and population levels by use of various biomarkers. Mutat Res 719:29–34Google Scholar
  194. Koutsogiannaki S, Evangelinos N, Koliakos G, Kaloyianni M (2006) Cytotoxic mechanisms of Zn2+ and Cd2+ involve Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) activation by ROS. Aquat Toxicol 78:315–324Google Scholar
  195. Kovács V, Gondor OK, Szalai G, Darkó E, Majláth I, Janda T, Pál M (2014) Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance. J Hazard Mater 280:12–19Google Scholar
  196. Kovalchuk I, Titov V, Hohn B, Kovalchuk O (2005) Transcriptome profiling reveals similarities and differences in plant responses to cadmium and lead. Mutat Res 570:149–161Google Scholar
  197. Kranner I, Colville L (2011) Metals and seeds: biochemical and molecular implications and their significance for seed germination. Environ Exp Bot 72:93–105Google Scholar
  198. Krantev A, Yordanova R, Janda T, Szalai G, Popova L (2008) Treatment with salicylic acid decreases the effect of cadmium on photosynthesis in maize plants. J Plant Physiol 165:920–931Google Scholar
  199. Krzesłowska M, Lenartowska M, Samardakiewicz S, Bilski H, Woźny A (2010) Lead deposited in the cell wall of Funaria hygrometrica protonemata is not stable—a remobilization can occur. Environ Pollut 158:325–338Google Scholar
  200. Kumar M, Bijo AJ, Baghel RS, Reddy CRK, Jha B (2012) Selenium and spermine alleviate cadmium induced toxicity in the red seaweed Gracilaria dura by regulating antioxidants and DNA methylation. Plant Physiol Biochem 51:129–138Google Scholar
  201. Kung C-P, Wu Y-R, Chuang H (2014) Expression of a dye-decolorizing peroxidase results in hypersensitive response to cadmium stress through reducing the ROS signal in Arabidopsis. Environ Exp Bot 101:47–55Google Scholar
  202. Kuo S, McNeal BL (1984) Effects of pH and phosphate on cadmium sorption by a hydrous ferric oxide. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48:1040–1044Google Scholar
  203. Küpper H, Parameswaran A, Leitenmeier BB, Trtilek M, Setlik I (2007) Cadmium induced inhibition of photosynthesis and long-term acclimation to cadmium stress in the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. New Phytol 175:655–674Google Scholar
  204. Landrot G, Tappero R, Webb SM, Sparks DL (2012) Arsenic and chromium speciation in an urban contaminated soil. Chemosphere 88:1196–1201Google Scholar
  205. Lee S, An G (2009) Over-expression of OsIRT1 leads to increased iron and zinc accumulations in rice. Plant Cell Environ 32:408–416Google Scholar
  206. Lee K, Bae DW, Kim SH, Han HJ, Liu X, Park HC, Lim CO, Lee SY, Chung WS (2010) Comparative proteomic analysis of the short-term responses of rice roots and leaves to cadmium. J Plant Physiol 167:161–168Google Scholar
  207. Lefèvre I, Marchal G, Edmond Ghanem M, Correal E, Lutts S (2010) Cadmium has contrasting effects on polyethylene glycol-sensitive and resistant cell lines in the Mediterranean halophyte species Atriplex halimus L. J Plant Physiol 167:365–374Google Scholar
  208. Li X, Zhou Q, Wei S, Ren W, Sun X (2011) Adsorption and desorption of carbendazim and cadmium in typical soils in northeastern China as affected by temperature. Geoderma 160:347–354Google Scholar
  209. Li L, Liu X, Peijnenburg WJGM, Zhao J, Chen X, Yu J, Wu H (2012) Pathways of cadmium fluxes in the root of the halophyte Suaeda salsa. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 75:1–7Google Scholar
  210. Li L, Wu H, van Gestel CA, Peijnenburg WJ, Allen HE (2014) Soil acidification increases metal extractability and bioavailability in old orchard soils of Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China. Environ Pollut 188:144–152Google Scholar
  211. Lima AIG, Da Cruz e Silva E, Figueira EMPA (2012) Cd-induced signaling pathways in plants: possible regulation of PC synthase by protein phosphatase 1. Environ Exp Bot 79:31–36Google Scholar
  212. Lin A-J, Zhang X-H, Chen M-M, Cao Q (2007a) Oxidative stress and DNA damages induced by cadmium accumulation. J Environ Sci (China) 19:596–602Google Scholar
  213. Lin R, Wang X, Luo Y, Du W, Guo H, Yin D (2007b) Effects of soil cadmium on growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant system in wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.). Chemosphere 69:89–98Google Scholar
  214. Lin L, Zhou W, Dai H, Cao F, Zhang G, Wu F (2012) Selenium reduces cadmium uptake and mitigates cadmium toxicity in rice. J Hazard Mater 235–236:343–351Google Scholar
  215. Liptáková Ľ, Huttová J, Mistrík I, Tamás L (2013) Enhanced lipoxygenase activity is involved in the stress response but not in the harmful lipid peroxidation and cell death of short-term cadmium-treated barley root tip. J Plant Physiol 170:646–652Google Scholar
  216. Liu JG, Liang JS, Li KQ, Zhang ZJ, Yu BY, Lu XL, Yang JC, Zhu QS (2003) Correlations between cadmium and mineral nutrients in absorption and accumulation in various genotypes of rice under cadmium stress. Chemosphere 52:1467–1473Google Scholar
  217. Liu W, Li PJ, Qi XM, Zhou QX, Zheng L, Sun TH, Yang YS (2005) DNA changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induced by cadmium pollution using RAPD analysis. Chemosphere 61:158–167Google Scholar
  218. Liu D, Kottke I, Adam D (2007) Localization of cadmium in the root cells of Allium cepa by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Biologia Plantarum 51:363–366Google Scholar
  219. Liu C, Li F, Luo C, Liu L, Wang S, Liu T, Li X (2009a) Foliar application of two silica sols reduced cadmium accumulation in rice grains. J Hazard Mater 161:1466–1472Google Scholar
  220. Liu Z, He X, Chen W, Yuan F, Yan K, Tao D (2009b) Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a potential hyperaccumulator—Lonicera japonica Thunb. J Hazard Mater 169:170–175Google Scholar
  221. Liu N, Lin Z-F, Lin G-Z, Song L-Y, Chen S-W, Mo H, Peng C-L (2010) Lead and cadmium induced alterations of cellular functions in leaves of Alocasia macrorrhiza L. Schott. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 73:1238–1245Google Scholar
  222. Liu C, Guo J, Cui Y, Lü T, Zhang X, Shi G (2011) Effects of cadmium and salicylic acid on growth, spectral reflectance and photosynthesis of castor bean seedlings. Plant and Soil 344:131–141Google Scholar
  223. Liu X, Lou C, Xu L, Sun L (2012) Distribution and bioavailability of cadmium in ornithogenic coral-sand sediments of the Xisha archipelago, South China Sea. Environ Pollut 168:151–160Google Scholar
  224. Liu L, Gong Z, Zhang Y, Li P (2014a) Growth, cadmium uptake and accumulation of maize (Zea mays L.) under the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Ecotoxicology 23:1979–1986Google Scholar
  225. Liu Y, Wu F, Mu Y, Feng C, Fang Y, Chen L, Giesy JP (2014b) Setting water quality criteria in China: approaches for developing species sensitivity distributions for metals and metalloids. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 230:35–57Google Scholar
  226. Liu B, Huang Q, Cai H, Guo X, Wang T, Gui M (2015) Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China. Food Chem 188:294–300Google Scholar
  227. Llugany M, Miralles R, Corrales I, Barceló J, Poschenrieder C (2012) Cynara cardunculus a potentially useful plant for remediation of soils polluted with cadmium or arsenic. J Geochem Explor 123:122–127Google Scholar
  228. Loeffler S, Hochberger A, Grill E, Winnacker E-L, Zenk MH (1989) Termination of the phytochelatin synthase reaction through sequestration of heavy metals by the reaction product. FEBS Lett 258:42–46Google Scholar
  229. Logan TJ, Chaney R (1984) Metals. In: Page AL, Gleason TL, Smith JE, Iskandar IK, Sommers LE (eds) Utilization of municipal wastewater and sludge on land. University of California Press, Riverside, CA, p 235Google Scholar
  230. Logan TJ, Miller RH (1983) Background levels of heavy metals in Ohio farm soils. Research circular 275. The Ohio State University Agricultural Research and Development, Wooster, OhioGoogle Scholar
  231. Lomaglio T, Rocco M, Trupiano D, De Zio E, Grosso A, Marra M, Delfine S, Chiatante D, Morabito D, Scippa GS (2015) Effect of short-term cadmium stress on Populus nigra L. detached leaves. J Plant Physiol 182:40–48Google Scholar
  232. Lombi E, Tearall KL, Howarth JR, Zhao F-J, Hawkesford MJ, McGrath SP (2002) Influence of iron status on cadmium and zinc uptake by different ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Plant Physiol 128:1359–1367Google Scholar
  233. Long LK, Yao Q, Guo J, Yang RH, Huang YH, Zhu HH (2010) Molecular community analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with five selected plant species from heavy metal polluted soils. Eur J Soil Biol 46:288–294Google Scholar
  234. Louwagie G, Gay SH, Burrell A (2009) Addressing soil degradation in EU agriculture: relevant processes, practices and policies. EUR 23767 ENGoogle Scholar
  235. Lozano-Rodriguez E, Hernàndez LE, Bonay P, Carpena-Ruiz RO (1997) Distribution of cadmium in shoot and root tissues1. J Exp Bot 48:123–128Google Scholar
  236. Lugon-Moulin N, Zhang M, Gadani F, Rossi L, Koller D, Krauss M, Wagner GJ (2004) Critical review of the scienceand options for reducing cadmium in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and other plants. Adv Agron. Academic, pp 111–180Google Scholar
  237. Lushchak VI (2007) Free radical oxidation of proteins and its relationship with functional state of organisms. Biochemistry 72:809–827Google Scholar
  238. Lushchak VI (2011) Adaptive response to oxidative stress: bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. Comp Biochem Physiol Part C Toxicol Pharmacol 153:175–190Google Scholar
  239. Lux A, Martinka M, Vaculík M, White PJ (2011) Root responses to cadmium in the rhizosphere: a review. J Exp Bot 62:21–37Google Scholar
  240. Luxford C, Dean RT, Davies MJ (2002) Induction of DNA damage by oxidised amino acids and proteins. Biogerontology 3:95–102Google Scholar
  241. Lyubenova L, Schröder P (2011) Plants for waste water treatment—effects of heavy metals on the detoxification system of Typha latifolia. Biores Technol 102:996–1004Google Scholar
  242. Maestri E, Marmiroli M, Visioli G, Marmiroli N (2010) Metal tolerance and hyperaccumulation: costs and trade-offs between traits and environment. Environ Exp Bot 68:1–13Google Scholar
  243. Mahmood A, Malik RN (2014) Human health risk assessment of heavy metals via consumption of contaminated vegetables collected from different irrigation sources in Lahore, Pakistan. Arab J Chem 7:91–99Google Scholar
  244. Maksimović I, Kastori R, Krstić L, Luković J (2007) Steady presence of cadmium and nickel affects root anatomy, accumulation and distribution of essential ions in maize seedlings. Biologia Plantarum 51:589–592Google Scholar
  245. Marcano L, Carruyo I, Del Campo A, Montiel X (2002) Effect of cadmium on the nucleoli of meristematic cells of onion Allium cepa L: an ultrastructural study. Environ Res 88:30–35Google Scholar
  246. Marmiroli M, Pigoni V, Savo-Sardaro ML, Marmiroli N (2014) The effect of silicon on the uptake and translocation of arsenic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Environ Exp Bot 99:9–17Google Scholar
  247. Márquez-García B, Horemans N, Cuypers A, Guisez Y, Córdoba F (2011) Antioxidants in Erica andevalensis: a comparative study between wild plants and cadmium-exposed plants under controlled conditions. Plant Physiol Biochem 49:110–115Google Scholar
  248. Martínez-Peñalver A, Graña E, Reigosa MJ, Sánchez-Moreiras AM (2012) The early response of Arabidopsis thaliana to cadmium- and copper-induced stress. Environ Exp Bot 78:1–9Google Scholar
  249. Mathys W (1975) Enzymes of heavy‐metal resistant and non‐resistant populations of silene cucubalus and their interaction with some heavy metals in vitro and in vivo. Physiol Plant 33(2):161–165Google Scholar
  250. May MJ, Vernoux T, Leaver C, Montagu MV, Inzé D (1998) Glutathione homeostasis in plants: implications for environmental sensing and plant development. J Exp Bot 49:649–667Google Scholar
  251. McLaughlin MJ, Smolders E, Degryse F, Rietra R (2011) Uptake of metals from soil into vegetables. In: Swartjes FA (ed) Dealing with contaminated sites. Springer, Berlin, pp 325–367Google Scholar
  252. Memon AR, Schröder P (2009) Implications of metal accumulation mechanisms to phytoremediation. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 16:162–175Google Scholar
  253. Mendoza-Cozatl DG, Zhai Z, Jobe TO, Akmakjian GZ, Song WY, Limbo O, Russell MR, Kozlovskyy VI, Martinoia E, Vatamaniuk OK, Russell P, Schroeder JI (2010) Tonoplast-localized Abc2 transporter mediates phytochelatin accumulation in vacuoles and confers cadmium tolerance. J Biol Chem 285:40416–40426Google Scholar
  254. Mendoza-Cózatl DG, Jobe TO, Hauser F, Schroeder JI (2011) Long-distance transport, vacuolar sequestration, tolerance, and transcriptional responses induced by cadmium and arsenic. Curr Opin Plant Biol 14:554–562Google Scholar
  255. Mengel K, Kirkby EA, Kosegarten H, Appel T (2001) Principles of plant nutrition. Springer Science & Business MediaGoogle Scholar
  256. Mesjasz-Przybyłowics J, Nakonieczny M, Migula P, Augustyniak M, Tarnawska M, Reimold WU, Koeberl C, Przybyłowicz W, Głowacka E (2004) Uptake of cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc from soil and water solutions by the nickel hyperaccumulator berkheya coddii. Acta Biol Cracoviensia Ser Bot 46:75–85Google Scholar
  257. Metwally A, Finkemeier I, Georgi M, Dietz K-J (2003) Salicylic acid alleviates the cadmium toxicity in barley seedlings. Plant Physiol 132:272–281Google Scholar
  258. Mishra S, Srivastava S, Tripathi RD, Kumar R, Seth CS, Gupta DK (2006) Lead detoxification by coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) involves induction of phytochelatins and antioxidant system in response to its accumulation. Chemosphere 65:1027–1039Google Scholar
  259. Miyadate H, Adachi S, Hiraizumi A, Tezuka K, Nakazawa N, Kawamoto T, Katou K, Kodama I, Sakurai K, Takahashi H et al (2011) OsHMA3, a P1B-type of ATPase affects root-to-shoot cadmium translocation in rice by mediating efflux into vacuoles. New Phytol 189:190–199Google Scholar
  260. Mohamed AA, Castagna A, Ranieri A, Sanità di Toppi L (2012) Cadmium tolerance in Brassica juncea roots and shoots is affected by antioxidant status and phytochelatin biosynthesis. Plant Physiol Biochem 57:15–22Google Scholar
  261. Mombo S, Foucault Y, Deola F, Gaillard I, Goix S, Shahid M, Schreck E, Pierart A, Dumat C (2016) Management of human health risk in the context of kitchen gardens polluted by lead and cadmium near a lead recycling company. J Soils Sediments. doi: 10.1007/s11368-015-1069-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Monteiro CC, Carvalho RF, Gratão PL, Carvalho G, Tezotto T, Medici LO, Peres LEP, Azevedo RA (2011) Biochemical responses of the ethylene-insensitive Never ripe tomato mutant subjected to cadmium and sodium stresses. Environ Exp Bot 71:306–320Google Scholar
  263. Monteiro C, Santos C, Pinho S, Oliveira H, Pedrosa T, Dias MC (2012) Cadmium-induced cyto- and genotoxicity are organ-dependent in lettuce. Chem Res Toxicol 25:1423–1434Google Scholar
  264. Morel M, Crouzet J, Gravot A, Auroy P, Leonhardt N, Vavasseur A, Richaud P (2009) AtHMA3, a P1B-ATPase allowing Cd/Zn/Co/Pb vacuolar storage in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 149:894–904Google Scholar
  265. Morman SA, Plumlee GS (2013) The role of airborne mineral dusts in human disease. Aeolian Res 9:203–212Google Scholar
  266. Muehe EM, Obst M, Hitchcock A, Tyliszczak T, Behrens S, Schröder C, Byrne JM, Michel FM, Krämer U, Kappler A (2013) Fate of Cd during microbial Fe(III) mineral reduction by a novel and Cd-tolerant geobacter species. Environ Sci Technol 47:14099–14109Google Scholar
  267. Munshower FF (1977) Cadmium accumulation in plants and animals of polluted and non polluted grasslands. J Environ Qual 6:411–413Google Scholar
  268. Najeeb U, Jilani G, Ali S, Sarwar M, Xu L, Zhou W (2011) Insights into cadmium induced physiological and ultra-structural disorders in Juncus effusus L. and its remediation through exogenous citric acid. J Hazard Mater 186:565–574Google Scholar
  269. Najmanova J, Neumannova E, Leonhardt T, Zitka O, Kizek R, Macek T, Mackova M, Kotrba P (2012) Cadmium-induced production of phytochelatins and speciation of intracellular cadmium in organs of Linum usitatissimum seedlings. Ind Crop Prod 36:536–542Google Scholar
  270. Nakanishi H, Ogawa I, Ishimaru Y, Mori S, Nishizawa NK (2006) Iron deficiency enhances cadmium uptake and translocation mediated by the Fe2+ transporters OsIRT1 and OsIRT2 in rice. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 52:464–469Google Scholar
  271. Nedjimi B, Daoud Y (2009) Cadmium accumulation in Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii and its influence on growth, proline, root hydraulic conductivity and nutrient uptake. Flora Morphol Distribut Funct Ecol Plants 204:316–324Google Scholar
  272. Nehnevajova E, Lyubenova L, Herzig R, Schröder P, Schwitzguébel J-P, Schmülling T (2012) Metal accumulation and response of antioxidant enzymes in seedlings and adult sunflower mutants with improved metal removal traits on a metal-contaminated soil. Environ Exp Bot 76:39–48Google Scholar
  273. Niazi NK, Bishop TFA, Singh B (2011a) Evaluation of spatial variability of soil arsenic adjacent to a disused cattle-dip site, using model-based geostatistics. Environ Sci Technol 45:10463–10470Google Scholar
  274. Niazi NK, Singh B, Shah P (2011b) Arsenic speciation and phytoavailability in contaminated soils using a sequential extraction procedure and XANES spectroscopy. Environ Sci Technol 45:7135–7142Google Scholar
  275. Niazi NK, Singh B, Van Zwieten L, Kachenko AG (2011c) Phytoremediation potential of Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana and Pteris vittata L. grown at a highly variable arsenic contaminated site. Int J Phytoremediation 13:912–932Google Scholar
  276. Niazi NK, Singh B, Van Zwieten L, Kachenko AG (2012) Phytoremediation of an arsenic contaminated site using Pteris vittata L. and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana: a long-term study. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19:3506–3515Google Scholar
  277. Nishizono H, Ichikawa H, Suziki S, Ishii F (1987) The role of the root cell wall in the heavy metal tolerance of Athyrium yokoscense. Plant and Soil 101:15–20Google Scholar
  278. Noctor G, Foyer CH (1998) Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:249–279Google Scholar
  279. Noctor G, Arisi A-CM, Jouanin L, Foyer CH (1998) Manipulation of glutathione and amino acid biosynthesis in the chloroplast. Plant Physiol 118:471–482Google Scholar
  280. Nordic Council of Ministers (2003) Cadmium review.
  281. Nriagu JO (1989) A global assessment of natural sources of atmospheric trace metals. Nature 338:47–48Google Scholar
  282. Nzengue Y, Candéias M, Sauvaigo S, Douki T, Favier A, Rachidi W, Guiraud P (2015) The toxicity redox mechanisms of cadmium alone or together with copper and zinc homeostasis alteration: its redox biomarkers. J Trace Elem Med Biol 25:171–180Google Scholar
  283. Oda K, Otani M, Uraguchi S, Akihiro T, Fujiwara T (2011) Rice ABCG43 is Cd inducible and confers Cd tolerance on yeast. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 75:1211–1213Google Scholar
  284. OECD (1994) Risk reduction monograph no. 5: cadmium. OECD environment monograph series no. 104. OECD Environment Directorate, ParisGoogle Scholar
  285. Ogawa S, Yoshidomi T, Yoshimura E (2011) Cadmium(II)-stimulated enzyme activation of Arabidopsis thaliana phytochelatin synthase 1. J Inorg Biochem 105:111–117Google Scholar
  286. Olmos E, Martínez-Solano JR, Piqueras A, Hellín E (2003) Early steps in the oxidative burst induced by cadmium in cultured tobacco cells (BY-2 line). J Exp Bot 54:291–301Google Scholar
  287. Page AL, Chang AC, El-Amamy M (1987) Cadmium levels in soils and crops in the United States. Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic in the environment. 119–146Google Scholar
  288. Pal M, Szalai G, Horvath E, Janda T, Paldi E (2002) Effect of salicylic acid during heavy metal stress. Acta Biol Szegediensis 46:119–120Google Scholar
  289. Panda SK, Patra HK (2007) Effect of salicylic acid potentiates cadmium-induced oxidative damage in Oryza sativa L. leaves. Acta Physiol Plant 29:567–575Google Scholar
  290. Pandey SP, Somssich IE (2009) The role of WRKY transcription factors in plant immunity. Plant Physiol 150:1648–1655Google Scholar
  291. Park Y, Moon Y, Ryoo J, Kim N, Cho H, Ahn JH (2012) Identification of the minimal region in lipase ABC transporter recognition domain of Pseudomonas fluorescens for secretion and fluorescence of green fluorescent protein. Microb Cell Fact 11:11–60Google Scholar
  292. Parkhurst DL, Appelo CAJ (1999) User’s guide to PHREEQC (version 2). US Geol Surv Water Resour Inv Rep 99-4259, 312pGoogle Scholar
  293. Parlak UK, Demirezen Yilmaz D (2013) Ecophysiological tolerance of Lemna gibba L. exposed to cadmium. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 91:79–85Google Scholar
  294. Pena LB, Pasquini LA, Tomaro ML, Gallego SM (2007) 20S proteasome and accumulation of oxidized and ubiquitinated proteins in maize leaves subjected to cadmium stress. Phytochemistry 68:1139–1146Google Scholar
  295. Pence NS, Larsen PB, Ebbs SD, Letham DLD, Lasat MM, Garvin DF, Eide D, Kochian LV (2000) The molecular physiology of heavy metal transport in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:4956–4960Google Scholar
  296. Pereira BFF, Rozane DE, Araujo SR, Barth G, Queiroz RJB, Nogueira TAR, Moraes MF, Cabral CP, Boaretto AE, Malavolta E (2011) Cadmium availability and accumulation by lettuce and rice. Rev Bras Cienc Solo 35:645–654Google Scholar
  297. Pierce FJ, Dowdy RH, Grigal DF (1982) Concentrations of six trace metals in some major Minnesota soil series. J Environ Qual 11:416–422Google Scholar
  298. Piotrowska-Niczyporuk A, Bajguz A, Zambrzycka E, Godlewska-Zylkiewicz B (2012) Phytohormones as regulators of heavy metal biosorption and toxicity in green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae). Plant Physiol Biochem 52:52–65Google Scholar
  299. Pizzol M, Bulle C, Thomsen M (2012) Indirect human exposure assessment of airborne lead deposited on soil via a simplified fate and speciation modelling approach. Sci Total Environ 421–422:203–209Google Scholar
  300. Podazza G, Arias M, Prado FE (2012) Cadmium accumulation and strategies to avoid its toxicity in roots of the citrus rootstock Citrumelo. J Hazard Mater 215–216:83–89Google Scholar
  301. Popova LP, Maslenkova LT, Yordanova RY, Ivanova AP, Krantev AP, Szalai G, Janda T (2009) Exogenous treatment with salicylic acid attenuates cadmium toxicity in pea seedlings. Plant Physiol Biochem 47:224–231Google Scholar
  302. Poschenrieder C, Cabot C, Martos S, Gallego B, Barceló J (2013) Do toxic ions induce hormesis in plants? Plant Sci 212:15–25Google Scholar
  303. Pourrut B, Perchet G, Silvestre J, Cecchi M, Guiresse M, Pinelli E (2008) Potential role of NADPH-oxidase in early steps of lead-induced oxidative burst in Vicia faba roots. J Plant Physiol 165:571–579Google Scholar
  304. Pourrut B, Shahid M, Dumat C, Winterton P, Pinelli E (2011) Lead uptake, toxicity, and detoxification in plants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 213:113–136Google Scholar
  305. Pourrut B, Shahid M, Douay F, Dumat C, Pinelli E (2013) Molecular mechanisms involved in lead uptake, toxicity and detoxification in higher plants. In: Gupta DK, Corpas FJ, Palma JM (eds) Heavy metal stress in plants. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 121–147Google Scholar
  306. Prasad MNV (2004) Heavy metal stress in plants: from biomolecules to ecosystems. Springer Science & Business MediaGoogle Scholar
  307. Prévéral S, Gayet L, Moldes C, Hoffmann J, Mounicou S, Gruet A, Reynaud F, Lobinski R, Verbavatz J-M, Vavasseur A et al (2009) A common highly conserved cadmium detoxification mechanism from bacteria to humans: heavy metal tolerance conferred by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter SpHMT1 requires glutathione but not metal-chelating phytochelatin peptides. J Biol Chem 284:4936–4943Google Scholar
  308. Qi Z-M, Feng S-Y, Helmers MJ (2012) Modeling cadmium transport in neutral and alkaline soil columns at various depths. Pedosphere 22:273–282Google Scholar
  309. Qian H, Li J, Pan X, Jiang H, Sun L, Fu Z (2010) Photoperiod and temperature influence cadmium’s effects on photosynthesis-related gene transcription in Chlorella vulgaris. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 73:1202–1206Google Scholar
  310. Qiu R-L, Zhao X, Tang Y-T, Yu F-M, Hu P-J (2008) Antioxidative response to Cd in a newly discovered cadmium hyperaccumulator, Arabis paniculata F. Chemosphere 74:6–12Google Scholar
  311. Quartacci MF, Argilla A, Baker AJM, Navari-Izzo F (2006) Phytoextraction of metals from a multiply contaminated soil by Indian mustard. Chemosphere 63:918–925Google Scholar
  312. Quenea K, Lamy I, Winterton P, Bermond A, Dumat C (2009) Interactions between metals and soil organic matter in various particle size fractions of soil contaminated with waste water. Geoderma 149:217–223Google Scholar
  313. Quezada-hinojosa R, Föllmi KB, Gillet F, Matera V (2015) Cadmium accumulation in six common plant species associated with soils containing high geogenic cadmium concentrations at Le Gurnigel, Swiss Jura Mountains EX. Catena 124:85–96Google Scholar
  314. Rady MM (2011) Effect of 24-epibrassinolide on growth, yield, antioxidant system and cadmium content of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants under salinity and cadmium stress. Sci Hortic 129:232–237Google Scholar
  315. Rady MM, Hemida KA (2015) Modulation of cadmium toxicity and enhancing cadmium-tolerance in wheat seedlings by exogenous application of polyamines. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 119:178–185Google Scholar
  316. Ramos J, Clemente MR, Naya L, Loscos J, Perez-Rontome C, Sato S, Tabata S, Becana M (2007) Phytochelatin synthases of the model legume lotus japonicus. A small multigene family with differential response to cadmium and alternatively spliced variants. Plant Physiol 143:1110–1118Google Scholar
  317. Ran X, Liu R, Xu S, Bai F, Xu J, Yang Y, Shi J, Wu Z (2014) Assessment of growth rate, chlorophyll a fluorescence, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity in Aphanizomenon flosaquae, Pediastrum simplex and Synedra acus exposed to cadmium. Ecotoxicology. doi: 10.1007/s10646-014-1395-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Rao RAK, Kashifuddin M (2012) Adsorption studies of Cd(II) on ball clay: comparison with other natural clays. Arab J Chem. doi: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2012.01.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Rao KS, Mohapatra M, Anand S, Venkateswarlu P (2010) Review on cadmium removal from aqueous solutions. Int J Eng Sci Technol 2:81–103Google Scholar
  320. Rascio N, Navari-Izzo F (2011) Heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants: how and why do they do it? And what makes them so interesting? Plant Sci 180:169–181Google Scholar
  321. Rea PA (2007) Plant ATP-binding cassette transporters. Annu Rev Plant Biol 58:347–375Google Scholar
  322. Rea PA, Vatamaniuk OK, Rigden DJ (2004) Weeds, worms, and more. papain’s long-lost cousin, phytochelatin synthase. Plant Physiol 136:2463–2474Google Scholar
  323. Redondo-Gómez S, Mateos-Naranjo E, Andrades-Moreno L (2010) Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a halophytic Cd-hyperaccumulator, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum. J Hazard Mater 184:299–307Google Scholar
  324. Renella G, Adamo P, Bianco MR, Landi L, Violante P, Nannipieri P (2004) Availability and speciation of cadmium added to a calcareous soil under various managements. Eur J Soil Sci 55:123–133Google Scholar
  325. Reuter J, Perdue E (1977) Importance of heavy metal-organic matter interactions in natural waters. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 41:325–334Google Scholar
  326. Rinalducci S, Murgiano L, Zolla L (2008) Redox proteomics: basic principles and future perspectives for the detection of protein oxidation in plants. J Exp Bot 59:3781–3801Google Scholar
  327. Rodrigo A, Avila A, Gómez-Bolea A (1999) Trace metal contents in Parmelia caperata (L.) Ach. compared to bulk deposition, throughfall and leaf-wash fluxes in two holm oak forests in Montseny (NE Spain). Atmos Environ 33:359–367Google Scholar
  328. Rodríguez-Serrano M, Romero-Puertas MC, Zabalza A, Corpas FJ, Gómez M, Del Río LA, Sandalio LM (2006) Cadmium effect on oxidative metabolism of pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots. Imaging of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide accumulation in vivo. Plant Cell Environ 29:1532–1544Google Scholar
  329. Rodríguez-Serrano M, Romero-Puertas MC, Pazmiño DM, Testillano PS, Risueño MC, Del Río LA, Sandalio LM (2009) Cellular response of pea plants to cadmium toxicity: cross talk between reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and calcium. Plant Physiol 150:229–243Google Scholar
  330. Romero-Puertas MC, Palma JM, Gómez M, Del Río LA, Sandalio LM (2002) Cadmium causes the oxidative modification of proteins in pea plants. Plant Cell Environ 25:677–686Google Scholar
  331. Rosén K, Eriksson J, Vinichuk M (2012) Uptake and translocation of 109Cd and stable Cd within tobacco plants (Nicotiana sylvestris). J Environ Radioact 113:16–20Google Scholar
  332. Roth U, von Roepenack-Lahaye E, Clemens S (2006) Proteome changes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots upon exposure to Cd2+. J Exp Bot 57:4003–4013Google Scholar
  333. Sabir M, Waraich EA, Hakeem KR, Öztürk M, Ahmad HR, Shahid M (2015) Phytoremediation: mechanisms and adaptations. Soil Remed Plants 4:85–105Google Scholar
  334. Saeki K, Kunito T (2012) Influence of chloride ions on cadmium adsorptions by oxides, hydroxides, oxyhydroxides, and phyllosilicates. Appl Clay Sci 62–63:58–62Google Scholar
  335. Saidi I, Ayouni M, Dhieb A, Chtourou Y, Chaïbi W, Djebali W (2013) Oxidative damages induced by short-term exposure to cadmium in bean plants: protective role of salicylic acid. S Afr J Bot 85:32–38Google Scholar
  336. Saidi I, Chtourou Y, Djebali W (2014) Selenium alleviates cadmium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings. J Plant Physiol 171:85–91Google Scholar
  337. Salminen R, Batista MJ, Bidovec M, Demetriades A, De Vivo B, De Vos W, Duris M, Gilucis A, Gregorauskiene V, Halamic J, Heitzmann P, Lima A, Jordan G, Klaver G, Klein P, Lis J, Locutura J, Marsina K, Mazreku A, O’Connor PJ, Olsson SÅ, Ottesen RT, Petersell V, Plant JA, Reeder S, Salpeteur I, Sandstr­m H, Siewers U, Steenfelt A, Tarvainen T (2005) Geochemical Atlas of Europe. Part 1 – Background Information, Methodology and Maps. Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  338. Salt DE, Rauser WE (1995) MgATP-dependent transport of phytochelatins across the tonoplast of oat roots. Plant Physiol 107:1293–1301Google Scholar
  339. Salt DE, Wagner GJ (1993) Cadmium transport across tonoplast of vesicles from oat roots. Evidence for a Cd2+/H+ antiport activity. J Biol Chem 268:12297–12302Google Scholar
  340. Sánchez-Marín P, Santos-Echeandía J, Nieto-Cid M, Álvarez-Salgado XA, Beiras R (2010) Effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) of contrasting origins on Cu and Pb speciation and toxicity to Paracentrotus lividus larvae. Aquat Toxicol 96:90–102Google Scholar
  341. Santos-Echeandía J, Vale C, Caetano M, Pereira P, Prego R (2010) Effect of tidal flooding on metal distribution in pore waters of marsh sediments and its transport to water column (Tagus estuary, Portugal). Mar Environ Res 70(5):358–367Google Scholar
  342. Sarret G, Smits EAHP, Michel HC, Isaure MP, Zhao FJ, Tappero R (2013) Chapter one—use of synchrotron-based techniques to elucidate metal uptake and metabolism in plants. Adv Agron 119:1–82Google Scholar
  343. Sauvé S, Hendershot W, Allen H (2000) Solid-solution partitioning of metals in contaminated soils: dependence on pH, total metal burden, and organic matter. Environ Sci Technol 34:1125–1131Google Scholar
  344. Schreck E, Foucault Y, Sarret G, Sobanska S, Cécillon L, Castrec-Rouelle M, Uzu G, Dumat C (2012a) Metal and metalloid foliar uptake by various plant species exposed to atmospheric industrial fallout: mechanisms involved for lead. Sci Total Environ 427–428:253–262Google Scholar
  345. Schreck E, Bonnard R, Laplanche C, Leveque T, Foucault Y, Dumat C (2012b) DECA: a new model for assessing the foliar uptake of atmospheric lead by vegetation, using Lactuca sativa as an example. J Environ Manage 112:233–239Google Scholar
  346. Schreck E, Laplanche C, Le Guédard M, Bessoule J-J, Austruy A, Xiong T, Foucault Y, Dumat C (2013) Influence of fine process particles enriched with metals and metalloids on Lactuca sativa L. leaf fatty acid composition following air and/or soil-plant field exposure. Environ Pollut 179:242–249Google Scholar
  347. Schreck E, Dappe V, Sarret G, Sobanska S, Nowak D, Nowak J, Stefaniak EA, Magnin V, Ranieri V, Dumat C (2014) Foliar or root exposures to smelter particles: consequences for lead compartmentalization and speciation in plant leaves. Sci Total Environ 476–477:667–676Google Scholar
  348. Schwartz GG, Reis IM (2000) Is cadmium a cause of human pancreatic cancer? Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9:139–145Google Scholar
  349. Scoullos M, Vonkeman GH, Thornton I, Makuch Z (2001) Mercury-cadmium-lead handbook for sustainable heavy metals policy and regulation: handbook for sustainable heavy metals policy and regulation. Springer Science & Business Media, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  350. Semane B, Cuypers A, Smeets K, Van Belleghem F, Horemans N, Schat H, Vangronsveld J (2007) Cadmium responses in Arabidopsis thaliana: glutathione metabolism and antioxidative defence system. Physiol Plant 129:519–528Google Scholar
  351. Seregin IV, Shpigun LK, Ivanov VB (2004) Distribution and toxic effects of cadmium and lead on maize roots. Russian J Plant Physiol 51:525–533Google Scholar
  352. Sergeant K, Kieffer P, Dommes J, Hausman J-F, Renaut J (2014) Proteomic changes in leaves of poplar exposed to both cadmium and low-temperature. Environ Exp Bot 106:112–123Google Scholar
  353. Shah K, Kumar RG, Verma S, Dubey RS (2001) Effect of cadmium on lipid peroxidation, superoxide anion generation and activities of antioxidant enzymes in growing rice seedlings. Plant Sci 161:1135–1144Google Scholar
  354. Shahid M, Pinelli E, Pourrut B, Silvestre J, Dumat C (2011) Lead-induced genotoxicity to Vicia faba L. roots in relation with metal cell uptake and initial speciation. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:78–84Google Scholar
  355. Shahid M, Arshad M, Kaemmerer M, Pinelli E, Probst A, Baque D, Pradere P, Dumat C (2012a) Long-term field metal extraction by Pelargonium: phytoextraction efficiency in relation to plant maturity. Int J Phytoremediation 14:493–505Google Scholar
  356. Shahid M, Dumat C, Aslam M, Pinelli E (2012b) Assessment of lead speciation by organic ligands using speciation models. Chem Spec Bioavail 24:248–252Google Scholar
  357. Shahid M, Dumat C, Silvestre J, Pinelli E (2012c) Effect of fulvic acids on lead-induced oxidative stress to metal sensitive Vicia faba L. plant. Biol Fertil Soils 48:689–697Google Scholar
  358. Shahid M, Pinelli E, Dumat C (2012d) Review of Pb availability and toxicity to plants in relation with metal speciation; role of synthetic and natural organic ligands. J Hazard Mater 219–220:1–12Google Scholar
  359. Shahid M, Ferrand E, Schreck E, Dumat C (2013a) Behavior and impact of zirconium in the soil-plant system: plant uptake and phytotoxicity. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 221:107–127Google Scholar
  360. Shahid M, Xiong T, Castrec-Rouelle M, Leveque T, Dumat C (2013b) Water extraction kinetics of metals, arsenic and dissolved organic carbon from industrial contaminated poplar leaves. J Environ Sci 25:2451–2459Google Scholar
  361. Shahid M, Xiong T, Masood N, Leveque T, Quenea K, Austruy A, Foucault Y, Dumat C (2014a) Influence of plant species and phosphorus amendments on metal speciation and bioavailability in a smelter impacted soil: a case study of food-chain contamination. J Soils Sediments 14:655–665Google Scholar
  362. Shahid M, Austruy A, Echevarria G, Arshad M, Sanaullah M, Aslam M, Nadeem M, Nasim W, Dumat C (2014b) EDTA-enhanced phytoremediation of heavy metals: a review. Soil Sediment Contam 23:389–416Google Scholar
  363. Shahid M, Dumat C, Pourrut B, Sabir M, Pinelli E (2014c) Assessing the effect of metal speciation on lead toxicity to Vicia faba pigment contents. J Geochem Explor 144:290–297Google Scholar
  364. Shahid M, Dumat C, Pourrut B, Silvestre J, Laplanche C, Pinelli E (2014d) Influence of EDTA and citric acid on lead-induced oxidative stress to Vicia faba roots. J Soils Sediments 14:835–843Google Scholar
  365. Shahid M, Pinelli E, Pourrut B, Dumat C (2014e) Effect of organic ligands on lead-induced oxidative damage and enhanced antioxidant defense in the leaves of Vicia faba plants. J Geochem Explor. doi: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2014.01.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Shahid M, Pourrut B, Dumat C, Nadeem M, Aslam M, Pinelli E (2014f) Heavy-metal-induced reactive oxygen species: phytotoxicity and physicochemical changes in plants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 232:1–44Google Scholar
  367. Shahid M, Dumat C, Pourrut B, Abbas G, Shahid N, Pinelli E (2015a) Role of metal speciation in lead-induced oxidative stress to Vicia faba roots. Russian J Plant Physiol 62:448–454Google Scholar
  368. Shahid M, Khalid S, Abbas G, Shahid N, Nadeem M, Sabir M, Aslam M, Dumat C (2015a) Heavy metal stress and crop productivity. In: Hakeem KR (ed) Crop Prod Glob Environ Issues, Springer International Publishing, pp 1–25Google Scholar
  369. Sheng X-F, Xia J-J (2006) Improvement of rape (Brassica napus) plant growth and cadmium uptake by cadmium-resistant bacteria. Chemosphere 64:1036–1042Google Scholar
  370. Shi GR, Cai QS, Liu QQ, Wu L (2009) Salicylic acid-mediated alleviation of cadmium toxicity in hemp plants in relation to cadmium uptake, photosynthesis, and antioxidant enzymes. Acta Physiol Plant 31:969–977Google Scholar
  371. Shi H, Ye H, Chan Z (2014) Nitric oxide-activated hydrogen sulfide is essential for cadmium stress response in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.). Plant Physiol Biochem 74:99–107Google Scholar
  372. Shi GL, Zhu S, Bai SN, Xia Y, Lou LQ, Cai QS (2015) The transportation and accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, and phosphorus in 12 wheat cultivars and their relationships with each other. J Hazard Mater 299:94–102Google Scholar
  373. Silber A, Bar-Yosef B, Suryano S, Levkovitch I (2012) Zinc adsorption by perlite: effects of pH, ionic strength, temperature, and pre-use as growth substrate. Geoderma 170:159–167Google Scholar
  374. Simmons RW, Pongsakul P, Saiyasitpanich D, Klinphoklap S (2005) Elevated levels of cadmium and zinc in paddy soils and elevated levels of cadmium in rice grain downstream of a zinc mineralized area in Thailand: implications for public health. Environ Geochem Health 27:501–511Google Scholar
  375. Singh HP, Batish DR, Kaur G, Arora K, Kohli RK (2008a) Nitric oxide (as sodium nitroprusside) supplementation ameliorates Cd toxicity in hydroponically grown wheat roots. Environ Exp Bot 63:158–167Google Scholar
  376. Singh S, Khan AN, Nazar R, Anjum NA (2008b) Photosynthetic traits and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) under cadmium stress. Am J Plant Physiol 3:1–25Google Scholar
  377. Singh A, Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshall FM (2010) Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of foodstuffs from the wastewater irrigated site of a dry tropical area of India. Food Chem Toxicol 48:611–619Google Scholar
  378. Sinha S, Mukherjee SK (2008) Cadmium-induced siderophore production by a high Cd-resistant bacterial strain relieved Cd toxicity in plants through root colonization. Curr Microbiol 56:55–60Google Scholar
  379. Son K-H, Kim D-Y, Koo N, Kim K-R, Kim J-G, Owens G (2012) Detoxification through phytochelatin synthesis in Oenothera odorata exposed to Cd solutions. Environ Exp Bot 75:9–15Google Scholar
  380. Souza VL, de Almeida A-AF, Lima SGC, de M Cascardo JC, da C Silva D, Mangabeira PAO, Gomes FP (2011) Morphophysiological responses and programmed cell death induced by cadmium in Genipa americana L. (Rubiaceae). Biometals 24:59–71Google Scholar
  381. Staelens J, Houle D, Schrijver A, Neirynck J, Verheyen K (2008) Calculating dry deposition and canopy exchange with the canopy budget model: review of assumptions and application to two deciduous forests. Water Air Soil Pollut 191:149–169Google Scholar
  382. Stobart AK, Griffiths WT, Ameen‐Bukhari I, Sherwood RP (1985) The effect of Cd2+ on the biosynthesis of chlorophyll in leaves of barley. Physiol Plant 63(3):293–298Google Scholar
  383. Stone K, Ksebati MB, Marnett LJ (1990) Investigation of the adducts formed by reaction of malondialdehyde with adenosine. Chem Res Toxicol 3:33–38Google Scholar
  384. Sun Q, Ye ZH, Wang XR, Wong MH (2007) Cadmium hyperaccumulation leads to an increase of glutathione rather than phytochelatins in the cadmium hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. J Plant Physiol 164:1489–1498Google Scholar
  385. Sun J, Shen Z (2007) Effects of Cd stress on photosynthetic characteristics and nutrient uptake of cabbages with different Cd-tolerance. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 18:2605–2610Google Scholar
  386. Sun Y, Zhou Q, Diao C (2008) Effects of cadmium and arsenic on growth and metal accumulation of Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. Bioresour Technol 99:1103–1110Google Scholar
  387. Sun Y, Zhou Q, Wang L, Liu W (2009) Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of Bidens pilosa L. as a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator. J Hazard Mater 161:808–814Google Scholar
  388. Tamás L, Mistrík I, Alemayehu A, Zelinová V, Bočová B, Huttová J (2015) Salicylic acid alleviates cadmium-induced stress responses through the inhibition of Cd-induced auxin-mediated reactive oxygen species production in barley root tips. J Plant Physiol 173:1–8Google Scholar
  389. Tang X, Pang Y, Ji P, Gao P, Hung T (2016) Cadmium uptake in above-ground parts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 125:102–106Google Scholar
  390. Tao S, Sun L, Ma C, Li L, Li G, Hao L (2013) Reducing basal salicylic acid enhances Arabidopsis tolerance to lead or cadmium. Plant and Soil 372:309–318Google Scholar
  391. Tauber C (1988) Spurenelemente in Flugaschen (in German). Verlag TUV Rheinland GmbH, Köln, Germany, 469 ppGoogle Scholar
  392. Tavarez M, Macri A, Sankaran RP (2015) Cadmium and zinc partitioning and accumulation during grain filling in two near isogenic lines of durum wheat. Plant Physiol Biochem 97:461–469Google Scholar
  393. Thomine S, Wang R, Ward JM, Crawford NM, Schroeder JI (2000) Cadmium and iron transport by members of a plant metal transporter family in Arabidopsis with homology to Nramp genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:4991–4996Google Scholar
  394. Thornton I (1992) Cadmium in the human environment. IARC, Lyon, p 169Google Scholar
  395. Tian S, Lu L, Zhang J, Wang K, Brown P, He Z, Liang J, Yang X (2011) Calcium protects roots of Sedum alfredii H. against cadmium-induced oxidative stress. Chemosphere 84:63–69Google Scholar
  396. Tipping E, Lofts S, Lawlor AJ (1998) Modelling the chemical speciation of trace metals in the surface waters of the Humber system. Sci Total Environ 210–211:63–77Google Scholar
  397. Tiwari S, Kumari B, Singh SN (2008) Evaluation of metal mobility/immobility in fly ash induced by bacterial strains isolated from the rhizospheric zone of Typha latifolia growing on fly ash dumps. Bioresour Technol 99:1305–1310Google Scholar
  398. Toppi L, Vurro E, De Benedictis M, Falasca G, Zanella L, Musetti R, Lenucci MS, Dalessandro G, Altamura MM (2012) A bifasic response to cadmium stress in carrot: early acclimatory mechanisms give way to root collapse further to prolonged metal exposure. Plant Physiol Biochem 58:269–279Google Scholar
  399. Traina SJ (1999) The environmental chemistry of cadmium. In: McLaughlin MJ, Singh BR (eds) Cadmium in soils and plants. Springer, Netherlands, pp 11–37Google Scholar
  400. Tremblay S, Douki T, Cadet J, Wagner JR (1999) 2-Deoxycytidine glycols, a missing link in the free radical-mediated oxidation of DNA. J Biol Chem 274:20833–20838Google Scholar
  401. Tudoreanu L, Phillips CJC (2004) Modeling cadmium uptake and accumulation in plants. Adv Agron 84:121–157Google Scholar
  402. Turrión MB, Lafuente F, Mulas R, López O, Ruipérez C, Pando V (2012) Effects on soil organic matter mineralization and microbiological properties of applying compost to burned and unburned soils. J Environ Manage 95 Suppl: S245–S249Google Scholar
  403. Udovic M, McBride MB (2012) Influence of compost addition on lead and arsenic bioavailability in reclaimed orchard soil assessed using Porcellio scaber bioaccumulation test. J Hazard Mater 205–206:144–149Google Scholar
  404. Ueno D, Yamaji N, Kono I, Huang CF, Ando T, Yano M, Ma JF (2010) Gene limiting cadmium accumulation in rice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:16500–16505Google Scholar
  405. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP 2010) Final review of scientific information on cadmium. December:1–118Google Scholar
  406. Unyayar S, Celik A, Cekiç FO, Gözel A (2006) Cadmium-induced genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in Allium sativum and Vicia faba. Mutagenesis 21:77–81Google Scholar
  407. Urano J, Nakagawa T, Maki Y, Masumura T, Tanaka K, Murata N, Ushimaru T (2000) Molecular cloning and characterization of a rice dehydroascorbate reductase. FEBS Lett 466:107–111Google Scholar
  408. USGS (United States Geological Survey) (2015) Accessed December 2015
  409. Uzu G, Sobanska S, Sarret G, Muñoz M, Dumat C (2010) Foliar lead uptake by lettuce exposed to atmospheric fallouts. Environ Sci Technol 44:1036–1042Google Scholar
  410. Vaculík M, Konlechner C, Langer I, Adlassnig W, Puschenreiter M, Lux A, Hauser M-T (2012) Root anatomy and element distribution vary between two Salix caprea isolates with different Cd accumulation capacities. Environ Pollut 163:117–126Google Scholar
  411. Valls M, Atrian S, de Lorenzo V, Fernández LA (2000) Engineering a mouse metallothionein on the cell surface of Ralstonia eutropha CH34 for immobilization of heavy metals in soil. Nat Biotechnol 18:661–665Google Scholar
  412. Van Belleghem F, Cuypers A, Semane B, Smeets K, Vangronsveld J, d’Haen J, Valcke R (2007) Subcellular localization of cadmium in roots and leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. New Phytol 173:495–508Google Scholar
  413. Van der Vliet L, Peterson C, Hale B (2007) Cd accumulation in roots and shoots of durum wheat: the roles of transpiration rate and apoplastic bypass. J Exp Bot 58:2939–2947Google Scholar
  414. Vanhoudt N, Cuypers A, Horemans N et al (2011) Unraveling uranium induced oxidative stress related responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Part II: responses in the leaves and general conclusions. J Environ Radioact 102:638–645Google Scholar
  415. Verbruggen N, Hermans C, Schat H (2009) Mechanisms to cope with arsenic or cadmium excess in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 12:364–372Google Scholar
  416. Vogel-Mikus K, Arcon I, Kodre A (2010) Complexation of cadmium in seeds and vegetative tissues of the cadmium hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox as studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Plant and Soil 331:439–451Google Scholar
  417. Vollenweider P, Cosio C, Günthardt-Goerg MS, Keller C (2006) Localization and effects of cadmium in leaves of a cadmium-tolerant willow (Salix viminalis L.): part II Microlocalization and cellular effects of cadmium. Environ Exp Bot 58:25–40Google Scholar
  418. Vurro E, Ruotolo R, Ottonello S, Elviri L, Maffini M, Falasca G, Zanella L, Altamura MM, Sanità di Toppi L (2011) Phytochelatins govern zinc/copper homeostasis and cadmium detoxification in Cuscuta campestris parasitizing Daucus carota. Environ Exp Bot 72:26–33Google Scholar
  419. Wang H-C, Wu J-S, Chia J-C, Yang C-C, Wu Y-J, Juang R-H (2009) Phytochelatin synthase is regulated by protein phosphorylation at a threonine residue near its catalytic site. J Agric Food Chem 57:7348–7355Google Scholar
  420. Wang M, Chen L, Chen S, Ma Y (2012) Alleviation of cadmium-induced root growth inhibition in crop seedlings by nanoparticles. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 79:48–54Google Scholar
  421. Willekens H, Chamnongpol S, Davey M, Schraudner M, Langebartels C, Van Montagu M, Inze D, Van Camp W (1997) Catalase is a sink for H2O2 and is indispensable for stress defence in C3 plants. EMBO J 16:4806–4816Google Scholar
  422. Williams LE, Pittman JK, Hall JL (2000) Emerging mechanisms for heavy metal transport in plants. Biochim Biophys Acta 1465:104–126Google Scholar
  423. Wojas S, Hennig J, Plaza S, Geisler M, Siemianowski O, Skłodowska A, Ruszczyńska A, Bulska E, Antosiewicz DM (2009) Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis ABC transporter MRP7 modifies cadmium root-to-shoot transport and accumulation. Environ Pollut 157:2781–2789Google Scholar
  424. Wójcik M, Vangronsveld J, D’Haen J, Tukiendorf A (2005) Cadmium tolerance in Thlaspi caerulescens: II. Localization of cadmium in Thlaspi caerulescens. Environ Exp Bot 53:163–171Google Scholar
  425. Wong CKE, Cobbett CS (2009) HMA P-type ATPases are the major mechanism for root-to-shoot Cd translocation in Arabidopsis thaliana. New Phytol 181:71–78Google Scholar
  426. Wu F-B, Dong J, Qian QQ, Zhang G-P (2005) Subcellular distribution and chemical form of Cd and Cd-Zn interaction in different barley genotypes. Chemosphere 60:1437–1446Google Scholar
  427. Wu C, Liao B, Wang S-L, Zhang J, Li J-T (2010) Pb and Zn accumulation in a Cd-hyperaccumulator (Viola baoshanensis). Int J Phytoremediation 12:574–585Google Scholar
  428. Wu Y, Zhou S, Chen D, Zhao R, Li H, Lin Y (2011) Transformation of metals speciation in a combined landfill leachate treatment. Sci Total Environ 409:1613–1620Google Scholar
  429. Wu Z, Zhao X, Sun X, Tan Q, Tang Y, Nie Z, Hu C (2015) Xylem transport and gene expression play decisive roles in cadmium accumulation in shoots of two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus). Chemosphere 119:1217–1223Google Scholar
  430. Xian X, Shokohifard GI (1989) Effect of pH on chemical forms and plant availability of cadmium, zinc, and lead in polluted soils. Water Air Soil Pollut 45(3-4):265–273Google Scholar
  431. Xiang C, Werner BL, Christensen EM, Oliver DJ (2001) The biological functions of glutathione revisited in arabidopsis transgenic plants with altered glutathione levels. Plant Physiol 126:564–574Google Scholar
  432. Xiao X, Luo S, Zeng G, Wei W, Wan Y, Chen L, Guo H, Cao Z, Yang L, Chen J et al (2010) Biosorption of cadmium by endophytic fungus (EF) Microsphaeropsis sp. LSE10 isolated from cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. Bioresour Technol 101:1668–1674Google Scholar
  433. Xie Y, Luo H, Hu L, Sun X, Lou Y, Fu J (2014) Classification of genetic variation for cadmium tolerance in Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] using physiological traits and molecular markers. Ecotoxicology 23:1030–1043Google Scholar
  434. Xin J, Huang B, Yang Z, Yuan J, Zhang Y (2013) Comparison of cadmium subcellular distribution in different organs of two water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) cultivars. Plant and Soil 372:431–444Google Scholar
  435. Xiong J, He Z, Liu D, Mahmood Q, Yang X (2008) The role of bacteria in the heavy metals removal and growth of Sedum alfredii Hance in an aqueous medium. Chemosphere 70:489–494Google Scholar
  436. Xiong T, Leveque T, Shahid M, Foucault Y, Mombo S, Dumat C (2014) Lead and cadmium phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility for vegetables exposed to soil or atmospheric pollution by process ultrafine particles. J Environ Qual 43:1593-1600Google Scholar
  437. Xiong T, Leveque T, Shahid M, Foucault Y, Mombo S, Dumat C (2014a) Lead and cadmium phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility for vegetables exposed to soil or atmospheric pollution by process ultrafine particles. J Environ Qual. doi: 10.2134/jeq2013.11.0469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  438. Xiong T-T, Leveque T, Austruy A, Goix S, Schreck E, Dappe V, Sobanska S, Foucault Y, Dumat C (2014b) Foliar uptake and metal(loid) bioaccessibility in vegetables exposed to particulate matter. Environ Geochem Health. doi: 10.1007/s10653-014-9607-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. Xu Q, Min H, Cai S, Fu Y, Sha S, Xie K, Du K (2012) Subcellular distribution and toxicity of cadmium in Potamogeton crispus L. Chemosphere 89:114–120Google Scholar
  440. Xue D, Jiang H, Deng X, Zhang X, Wang H, Xu X, Hu J, Zeng D, Guo L, Qian Q (2014) Comparative proteomic analysis provides new insights into cadmium accumulation in rice grain under cadmium stress. J Hazard Mater 280:269–278Google Scholar
  441. Yamaguchi N, Mori S, Baba K, Kaburagi-Yada S, Arao T, Kitajima N, Hokura A, Terada Y (2011) Cadmium distribution in the root tissues of solanaceous plants with contrasting root-to-shoot Cd translocation efficiencies. Environ Exp Bot 71:198–206Google Scholar
  442. Yılmaz DD, Parlak KU (2011) Changes in proline accumulation and antioxidative enzyme activities in Groenlandia densa under cadmium stress. Ecol Indicat 11:417–423Google Scholar
  443. Yu H, Wang J, Fan W, Yuan J, Yang Z (2006) Cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars of rice. Sci Total Environ 370(2):302–309Google Scholar
  444. Zangi R, Filella M (2012) Transport routes of metalloids into and out of the cell: a review of the current knowledge. Chem Biol Interact 197:47–57Google Scholar
  445. Zawoznik MS, Groppa MD, Tomaro ML, Benavides MP (2007) Endogenous salicylic acid potentiates cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Sci 173:190–197Google Scholar
  446. Zeng K, Hwang H, Yuzuri H (2002) Effect of dissolved humic substances on the photochemical degradation rate of 1-Aminopyrene and Atrazine. Int J Mol Sci 3:1048–1057Google Scholar
  447. Zhang Z-C, Chen B-X, Qiu B-S (2010) Phytochelatin synthesis plays a similar role in shoots of the cadmium hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii as in non-resistant plants. Plant Cell Environ 33:1248–1255Google Scholar
  448. Zhang M, Liu X, Yuan L, Wu K, Duan J, Wang X, Yang L (2012) Transcriptional profiling in cadmium-treated rice seedling roots using suppressive subtractive hybridization. Plant Physiol Biochem 50:79–86Google Scholar
  449. Zhang W-L, Du Y, Zhai M-M, Shang Q (2014) Cadmium exposure and its health effects: a 19-year follow-up study of a polluted area in China. Sci Total Environ 470–471:224–228Google Scholar
  450. Zhao FJ, Jiang RF, Dunham SJ, McGrath SP (2006) Cadmium uptake, translocation and tolerance in the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri. New Phytol 172:646–654Google Scholar
  451. Zhao F-J, Ma Y, Zhu Y-G, Tang Z, McGrath SP (2015) Soil contamination in China: current status and mitigation strategies. Environ Sci Technol 49:750–759Google Scholar
  452. Zhou QX, Song YF (2004) Principles and methods of contaminated soil remediation. Science Press, Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  453. Zhou H, Zeng M, Zhou X, Liao BH, Peng PQ, Hu M, Zhu W, Wu YJ, Zou ZJ (2015) Heavy metal translocation and accumulation in iron plaques and plant tissues for 32 hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. Plant and Soil 386:317–329Google Scholar
  454. Zhu YL, Pilon-Smits EAH, Jouanin L, Terry N (1999) Overexpression of glutathione synthetase in Indian mustard enhances cadmium accumulation and tolerance. Plant Physiol 119:73–80Google Scholar
  455. Zhu Z-J, Sun G-W, Fang X-Z, Qian Q-Q, Yang X-E (2004) Genotypic differences in effects of cadmium exposure on plant growth and contents of cadmium and elements in 14 cultivars of bai cai. J Environ Sci Health B 39:675–687Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Shahid
    • 1
    Email author
  • Camille Dumat
    • 2
  • Sana Khalid
    • 1
  • Nabeel Khan Niazi
    • 3
    • 4
  • Paula M. C. Antunes
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyVehariPakistan
  2. 2.Centre d’Etude et de Recherche Travail Organisation Pouvoir (CERTOP), UMR5044Université J. Jaurès—Toulouse IIToulouse Cedex 9France
  3. 3.Institute of Soil and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Agriculture FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan
  4. 4.Southern Cross GeoScienceSouthern Cross UniversityLismoreAustralia
  5. 5.AquaTox Testing & Consulting Inc.GuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations