Persistent Organic Pollutants and Concern Over the Link with Insulin Resistance Related Metabolic Diseases
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are mostly halogenated compounds tending to persist in the environment, enter into the food chain, and accumulate in fat mass of mammals due to their high lipophilicity. They include some organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Some of these chemicals were widely used in the past so that their residues can be detected in the human body, though their usage has been banned for years. POPs have been shown to perturb the health of biological systems in different ways evidenced by carcinogenicity and disrupting effects on endocrine, immune, and reproductive systems. There are many epidemiologic and experimental studies on the association of exposure to POPs with insulin resistance and related metabolic disorders like obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Inflammation as a known mechanism accompanying insulin resistance has also been shown to arise in insulin target tissues exposed to POPs. This review addresses the breast milk concentration of POPs in different regions of the world, synthesizes the current information on the association of POPs with insulin resistance related metabolic disorders, and discusses the inflammation as an involved mechanism. Considering high prevalence of insulin resistance related metabolic diseases and their relation with POPs, much need is felt regarding international and regional programs to not only limit their production and usage but eliminate these persistent pollutants from the environment.
KeywordsPersistent organic pollutant Insulin resistance Obesity Diabetes Metabolic syndrome Inflammation
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor
Brominated flame retardants
Body mass index
Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults
Homeostatic model assessment
Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers
Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors
Persistent organic pollutants
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
Thank to the Research Council of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences.
Conflict of Interests
There is no conflict of interest.
- Ennaceur S, Gandoura N, Driss MR (2008) Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment. Environ Res 108:86–93. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2008.05.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Faerch K, Hojlund K, Vind BF, Vaag A, Dalgard C, Nielsen F, Grandjean P (2012) Increased serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants among prediabetic individuals: potential role of altered substrate oxidation patterns. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:E1705–E1713. doi: 10.1210/jc.2012-1342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jaraczewska K, Lulek J, Covaci A, Voorspoels S, Kaluba-Skotarczak A, Drews K, Schepens P (2006) Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human umbilical cord serum, maternal serum and milk from Wielkopolska region, Poland. Sci Total Environ 372:20–31. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.03.030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jurjanz S, Rychen G, Feidt C (2008) Dairy livestock exposure to persistent organic pollutants and their transfer to milk: a review. In: Faye B, Sinyavskiy Y (eds) Impact of pollution on animal products, NATO science for peace and security series. Series C: environmental security. Springer, Netherlands, pp 63–83. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-8359-4_7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kazda R, Hajšlová J, Poustka J, Čajka T (2004) Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human milk samples in the Czech Republic: comparative study of negative chemical ionisation mass spectrometry and time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 520:237–243. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2004.04.069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lee DH, Lee IK, Song K, Steffes M, Toscano W, Baker BA, Jacobs DR Jr (2006b) A strong dose-response relation between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and diabetes: results from the National Health and Examination Survey 1999-2002. Diabetes Care 29:1638–1644. doi: 10.2337/dc06-0543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lee DH, Lee IK, Jin SH, Steffes M, Jacobs DR Jr (2007a) Association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and insulin resistance among nondiabetic adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Diabetes Care 30:622–628. doi: 10.2337/dc06-2190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lee DH, Lee IK, Porta M, Steffes M, Jacobs DR Jr (2007b) Relationship between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among non-diabetic adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Diabetologia 50:1841–1851. doi: 10.1007/s00125-007-0755-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lee DH, Lind L, Jacobs DR Jr, Salihovic S, van Bavel B, Lind PM (2012) Associations of persistent organic pollutants with abdominal obesity in the elderly: the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Environ Int 40:170–178. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2011.07.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mostafalou S, Eghbal MA, Nili-Ahmadabadi A, Baeeri M, Abdollahi M (2012) Biochemical evidence on the potential role of organophosphates in hepatic glucose metabolism toward insulin resistance through inflammatory signaling and free radical pathways. Toxicol Ind Health 28:840–851. doi: 10.1177/0748233711425073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pal S, Blais JM, Robidoux MA, Haman F, Krummel E, Seabert TA, Imbeault P (2013) The association of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance/secretion with persistent organic pollutants in two First Nations communities in northern Ontario. Diabetes Metab J 39:497–504. doi: 10.1016/j.diabet.2013.01.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Polder A, Gabrielsen GW, Odland JO, Savinova TN, Tkachev A, Loken KB, Skaare JU (2008a) Spatial and temporal changes of chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, dioxins (PCDDs/PCDFs) and brominated flame retardants in human breast milk from Northern Russia. Sci Total Environ 391:41–54. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.10.045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Polder A, Thomsen C, Lindstrom G, Loken KB, Skaare JU (2008b) Levels and temporal trends of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in individual human breast milk samples from Northern and Southern Norway. Chemosphere 73:14–23. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.06.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Polder A, Skaare JU, Skjerve E, Loken KB, Eggesbo M (2009) Levels of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Norwegian breast milk (2002-2006), and factors that may predict the level of contamination. Sci Total Environ 407:4584–4590. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.04.032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ritter L, Solomon KR, Forget J, Stemeroff M, O’Leary C (2007) Persistent organic pollutants. United Nations Environment ProgrammeGoogle Scholar
- Sudaryanto A, Kunisue T, Kajiwara N, Iwata H, Adibroto TA, Hartono P, Tanabe S (2006) Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk. Environ Pollut 139:107–117. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2005.04.028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Turyk M, Anderson HA, Knobeloch L, Imm P, Persky VW (2009) Prevalence of diabetes and body burdens of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and p, p′-diphenyldichloroethene in Great Lakes sport fish consumers. Chemosphere 75:674–679. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.12.035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zietz BP, Hoopmann M, Funcke M, Huppmann R, Suchenwirth R, Gierden E (2008) Long-term biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk from mothers living in northern Germany. Int J Hyg Environ Health 211:624–638. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2008.04.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/), which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.
The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.