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pp 1-38 | Cite as

Process Economics and Atom Economy for Industrial Cross Coupling Applications via LnPd(0)-Based Catalysts

  • Eric D. SlackEmail author
  • Peter D. Tancini
  • Thomas J. ColacotEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Topics in Organometallic Chemistry book series

Abstract

Up to and beyond the 2010 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Pd-based cross coupling has seen a boom in industrial applications and scientific research. These efforts have yielded a wealth of information on Pd-based catalyst technology that can be separated into two broad categories: pre-catalysts and in situ generated catalysts. Proper selection of the catalyst system, i.e., in situ vs pre-catalyst is although process dependent, herein we provide an in-depth look into the often overlooked benefits of the pre-catalyst technology for maximizing the process economics. Although ligands play a crucial role in catalysis, it is not “all about ligands” alone. To improve the efficiency of the process one may need to precisely generate the active catalytic species for that particular reaction. In this chapter, we highlighted this concept by providing industrial case studies where switching from in situ generated to pre-catalyst technology yielded significant process economic benefits. We also provided process chemists with a methodology to properly evaluate catalyst technology and make recommendations on potential benefits by weighing the pros and cons of using in situ vs preformed.

Keywords

Atom economy  Catalyst cycle  Catalyst selection  Cross coupling  In situ catalyst generation Industrial applications LPd(0) Pre-catalysts Preformed Pd complexes Process economics 

Abbreviations

BINAP

2,2′-Bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1′-binaphthalene

BISBI

2,2′-Bis[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]-1,1′-biphenyl

DPEphos

(Oxydi-2,1-phenylene)bis(diphenylphosphine)

dppb

1,4-Bis(diphenylphosphino)butane

dppe

1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane

dppf

1,1′-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene

dppm

1,1-Bis(diphenylphosphino)methane

dppp

1,3-Bis(diphenylphosphino)propane

dtbpf

1,1′-Bis(di-tert-butylphosphino)ferrocene

Xantphos

4,5-Bis(diphenylphosphino)-9,9-dimethyl-xanthene [55]

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Johnson MattheyWest DeptfordUSA

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