About the Nature of the Structural Glass Transition: An Experimental Approach

  • J. K. Krüger
  • P. Alnot
  • J. Baller
  • R. Bactavatchalou
  • S. Dorosz
  • M. Henkel
  • M. Kolle
  • S. P. Krüger
  • U. Müller
  • M. Philipp
  • W. Possart
  • R. Sanctuary
  • Ch. Vergnat
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 716)

Abstract

The nature of the glassy state and of the glass transition of structural glasses is still a matter of debate. This debate stems predominantly from the kinetic features of the thermal glass transition. However the glass transition has at least two faces: the kinetic one which becomes apparent in the regime of low relaxation frequencies and a static one observed in static or frequency-clamped linear and non-linear susceptibilities. New results concerning the so-called α-relaxation process show that the historical view of an unavoidable cross-over of this relaxation time with the experimental time scale is probably wrong and support instead the existence of an intrinsic glass transition. In order to prove this, three different experimental strategies have been applied: studying the glass transition at extremely long time scales, the investigation of properties which are not sensitive to the kinetics of the glass transition and studying glass transitions which do not depend at all on a forced external time scale.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    K. L. Ngai, “Universal Patterns of Relaxations in Complex Correlated Systems”, in “Disorder Effects on Relaxation Processes”, Richert/Blumen, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg (1994)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. Donth, “Relaxation and Thermodynamics in Polymers, Glass transition”, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin (1992)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. Götze, L. Sjögren, Rep. Prog. Phys. 55, 241–376 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. H. Gibbs, E. A. DiMarzio, J. Chem. Phys. 28, 373 (1958)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Gee, Contemp. Phys. 11, 313 (1970)ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. J. Prejean, in “Dynamics of Disordered Materials”, Ed. by D. Richter, A. J. Dianoux, W. Petry and J. Teixeira, Proceedings in Physics 37, 242, Springer (1989)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Jäckle, Rep. Progr. Phys. 49, 171 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Jäckle, J. Phys. Cond. Matter, 1, 267 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. K. Krüger, R. Roberts, H.-G. Unruh, K.-P. Frühauf, J. Helwig, H. E. Müser, Progr. in Coll. & Polym. Sci. 71, 77 (1985)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K.-P. Frühauf, J. Helwig, H. E. Müser, J. K. Krüger, R. Roberts, Colloid & Polymer Science 266, 814 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. H. Cohen, D. Turnbull, J. Chem. Phys. 31, 1164 (1959)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. H. Cohen, D. Turnbull, J. Chem. Phys. 34, 120 (1961)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    K.-P. Bohn, J. K. Krüger, in “Structure and Properties of Glassy Polymers”, ACS Symposium Series 710, ed. by M. R. Tant and A. J. Hill (1998)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    W. Götze, in “Liquids, Freezing and Glass Transition”, edited by J. P. Hansen, D. Levesque and J. Zinn-Justin, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1989)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. K. Krüger, Th. Britz, J. Baller, W. Possart, H. Neurohr, Phys. Rev. Letter 89, 285701 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Brawer, “Relaxation in Viscous Liquids and Glasses”, American Ceramic Society (1985)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. D. Ediger, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 99–128 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. R. Elliott, “Physics Of Amorphous Materials”, Longman (1990)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    C. A. Angell, K. L. Ngai, G. B. McKenna, P. F. McMillan and S. W. Martin J. Appl. P., 88, 3113 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    I. Gutzow and J. Schmelzer, “The Vitreous State” Berlin: Springer (1995)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. G. Debenedetti “Metastable liquids – concepts and principles”, Princeton University Press (1996)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. Richter, A. J. Dianoux, W. Petry and J. Teixeira (eds.) “Dynamics of Disordered Materials”, Springer-Verlag (1989)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. J. Kovacs, Journal of Polymer Science 30, 131 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    G. Parisi, F. Zamponi, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 144501 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. M. Truskett, V. Ganesan, J. Chem. Phys. 119(4), 1897 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    G. Tarjus, D. Kivelson, in “Jamming and Rheology: Constrained Dynamics on Microscopic and Macroscopic scales”, S. Edwards, A. Liu, S. Nagel Eds., Taylor and Francis, London (2001)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    D. Chowdhury “Spin glasses and other frustrated systems” World scientific (1986)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. K. Krüger, R. Jiménez, K.-P. Bohn, J. Petersson, J. Albers, K. Klöpperpieper, E. Sauerland, H. E. Müser, Phys. Rev. B Cond. Matter, 42, 8537 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. Jiménez, B. Jiménez, J. K. Krüger, J. Schreiber, F. Sayetat, F. Mauvy, Ferroelectrics 157, 141 (1994)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fischer & Hertz, “Spin glasses” Cambridge university press (1991)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    K. Binder, A. P. Young, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 801 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    K. Knorr, A. Loidl, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5387 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. K. Satija, C. H. Wang, Solid State Comun. 28, 617 (1978)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. K. Satija, C. H. Wang, J. Chem. Phys., 69, 1101 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    C. H. Wang, S. K. Satija, Chem. Phys. Lett., 87, 330 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    R. Böhmer, A. Loidl, Phys. Rev. B 42, 1439–1443 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    R. Jiménez, K. P. Bohn, J. K. Krüger, Eur. Phys. J. B, 13, 643 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. Hessinger, K. Knorr, Phys. Rev. Letter, 63, 2749 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    K. H. Michel, Phys Rev B, 35, 1405 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. M. Rowe et al., Phys. Rev. Letter 53, 1158 (1973)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    K. Kishimoto, H. Suga, S. Seki, Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 51, 1691 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    K. Kishimoto, H. Suga, S. Seki, Cond. Matter., 19 (1978)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. K. Krüger, M. Prechtl, J. C. Wittmann, S. Meyer, P. Smith, J. F. Legrand, J. Pol. Sci. Part B 30, 1173 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. K. Krüger, M. Prechtl, J. C. Wittmann, S. Meyer, J. F. Legrand, G. Asseza, J. Pol. Sci. Part B, 31, 505–512 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    H. A. Lorentz, Wied. Ann. Phys., 9, 641 (1880)ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    L. V. Lorenz, Wied. Ann. Phys., 11, 70 (1880)ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Goldstein, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 51(9), 3728 (1969)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    M. Born, K. Huang, “Dynamical theory of crystal lattices”, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1968)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. K. Krüger, K. P. Bohn, R. Jimenez, Condensed Matter News 5, 10 (1996)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    J. K. Krüger, K. P. Bohn, R. Jimenez, J. Schreiber, Colloid & Polymer Science 274, 490 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    J. K. Krüger, K.-P. Bohn, J. Schreiber, Phys. Rev. B 54, 15767 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    J. W. Tucker, V. W. Rampton, “Microwave ultrasonics in solid state physics”, North Holland Publishing Co. (1972)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    P. G. de Gennes, “The physics of liquid crystals”, Clarendon Press (1974)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    S. Chandrasekhar “Liquid crystals”, Cambridge monographs on physics (1977)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    J. K. Krüger, C. Grammes, R. Jiménez, J. Schreiber, K.-P. Bohn, J. Baller, C. Fischer, D. Rogez, C. Schorr, P. Alnot, Phys. Rev. E, 51(3), 2115 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    C. Grammes, J. K. Krüger, K.-P. Bohn, J. Baller, C. Fischer, C. Schorr, D. Rogez, P. Alnot: Phys. Rev E, Vol. 51(1), 430 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    J. K. Krüger, L. Peetz, R. Siems, H.-G. Unruh, M. Eich, O. Herrmann- Schönherr, J. H. Wendor, Phys. Rev. A 37, 2637 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    J. K. Krüger, C. Grammes, J. H. Wendor, in “Dynamics of Disordered Materials”, Eds. D. Richter et al., Springer Proceedings in Phys. 37, 216 (1989)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    D. Forster “Hydrodynamic fluctuations, broken symmetry and correlation functions”, W. A. Benjamin, Inc. (1975)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    J. Wong, C. A. Angell “Glass – Structure by spectroscopy” Marcel Dekker, Inc. (1976)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    G. S. Fulcher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 8, 339, 789 (1925)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    G. Tammann, “Der Glaszustand”, Leopold Voss, Leipzig (1933)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    B. J. Berne, R. Pecora, “Dynamical Light Scattering”, John Wiley (1975)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    B. Chu, “Laser Light Scattering”, Academic Press (1974)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    W. Hayes, R. Loudon, “Scattering of Light By Crystals”, John Wiley (1978)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    J. K. Krüger, in “Optical Techniques to Characterize Polymer Systems”, edited by H. Bässler, Elsevier (1989)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, “Lehrbuch der Theoretischen Physik”, Bd. VIII, “Elektrodynamik der Kontinua”, Akademie Verlag Berlin (1966)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, “Lehrbuch der Theoretischen Physik”, Bd. V, “Statistische Physik”, Akademie Verlag Berlin (1966)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    H.-G. Unruh, J. Krüger, E. Sailer; Ferroelectrics 20, 3–10 (1978)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    J. F. Nye, “Physical Properties of Crystals”, Oxford Press (1972)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    J. K. Krüger, A. Marx, L. Peetz, R. Roberts, H.-G. Unruh; Colloid & Polymer Sci., 264, 403–414 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    J. K. Krüger, J. Embs, J. Brierley, R. Jimenez; J. Phys. D – Appl. Phys. 31, 1913 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    C. A. Angell, K. L. Ngai, G. B. McKenna, P. F. McMillan S. W. Martin J. Appl. Phys. 88 3113 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    K. Binder, A. P. Young, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 801 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    K.-P. Bohn, J. K. Krüger, in “Structure and Properties of Glassy Polymers”, ACS Symposium Series 710, ed. by M. R. Tant and A. J. Hill (1998)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    M. H. Cohen, D. Turnbull, J. Chem. Phys. 31, 1164 (1959)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    M. H. Cohen, D. Turnbull, J. Chem. Phys. 34, 120 (1961)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    P. G. Debenedetti, “Metastable liquids – concepts and principles”, Princeton University Press (1996)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    E. Donth, Relaxation and Thermodynamics in Polymers, Glass transition, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1992Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    S. R. Elliott, “Physics of Amorphous Materials”, Longman (1990)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fischer, Hertz “Spin glasses” Cambridge University Press 1991Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    W. Götze, in “Liquids, Freezing and Glass Transition”, edited by J. P. Hansen, D. Levesque and J. Zinn-Justin, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    W. Götze, L. Sjögren, Rep. Prog. Phys., 55, 241–376 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    B. A. Auld, “Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids”, John Wiley (1973)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    J. Jäckle, Models of the glass transition. Rep. Prog. Phys., 49, 171 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    A. J. Kovacs, Journal of Polymer Science 30, 131 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    J. K. Krüger, C. Grammes, J. H. Wendor, in Dynamics of Disordered Materials, Eds. D. Richter et al., Springer Proceedings in Physics 37, 216 (1989)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    H. Baur, “Thermophysics of Polymers, I: Theory”, Springer Verlag (1999)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    K.-P. Frühauf, J. Helwig, H. E. Müser, J. K. Krüger, R. Roberts, Colloid & Polymer Science 266, 814 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    R. Zwanzig, R. D. Mountain, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 4464 (1965)MathSciNetCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    J. K. Krüger, J. Baller, A. le Coutre, R. Peter, R. Bactavatchalou, J. Schreiber, Physical Review B, 66, 012206-1/4 (2002)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    J. F. Nye, “Physical Properties of Crystals”, Oxford Press (1972)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    M. Born, K. Huang, “Dynamical theory of crystal lattices”, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1968)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    G. Grimvall, “Thermophysical properties of materials in Selected topics in solid state physics”, Vol. XVIII, ed. by E. P. Wohlfarth, North Holland (1986)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    J. P. Boon, S. Yip, in “Molecular Hydrodynamics” Mc Graw Hill (1980)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    J. K. Krüger, J. Baller, A. le Coutre, Th. Britz, R. Peter, R. Bactavatchalou, J. Schreiber, Phys. Rev. B 66, 12206 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    J. K. Krüger, Th. Britz, J. Baller, W. Possart, H. Neurohr, Phys. Rev. Letter 89, 285701 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    S. Brawer, Relaxation in Viscous Liquids and Glasses, American Ceramic Society, (1985)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    M. D. Ediger, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 99–128 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    A. K. Doolittle, J. Appl. Phys., 22, 1471 (1951)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    J. Wong, C. A. Angel, “Glass” Marcel Dekker (1976)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    W. Williams, D. C. Watts, Trans. Farad. Soc., 66, 80 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    E. Donth, Relaxation and Thermodynamics in Polymers, Glass transition, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1992Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    P. G. Debenedetti, “Metastable liquids – concepts and principles”, Princeton University Press (1996)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    W. Götze, in Liquids, Freezing and Glass Transition, edited by J. P. Hansen, D. Levesque and J. Zinn-Justin (Amsterdam)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    W. Götze, L. Sjögren, Rep. Prog. Phys., 55, 241–376 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    G. S. Fulcher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 8, 339, 789 (1925)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    W. Cochran, “The Dynamics of Atoms in Crystals” in the Structures and Properties of Solids 3, Arnold (1973)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    J. J. Alkonis, A. J. Kovacs, in “Contemporary Topics in Sciences”, Ed. M. Shen, Plenum Press, 3, 257 (1979)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    G. Rehage, J. Macromol Sci., Phys., 818, 423 (1980)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    F. R. Schwarzl, F. Zahradnik, Rheol. Acta, 19, 137 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    C. A. Angell, “Strong and Fragile Liquids”, in “Relaxations in Complex Systems”, K. Ngai, G. B. Wright eds., Springfield, VA (1985)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    C. A. Angell, “Perspectives on the Glass Transition”, J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 102, 205 (1988)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    The Journal of Chemical Physics, 118, 1593–1595 (2003)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    T. Geszti, J. Phys. C. Sol. State. Phys., 16, 5805 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    J. K. Krüger, in “Optical Techniques to Characterize Polymer Systems”, edited by H. Bässler, Elsevier (1989)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    K.-P. Bohn, J. K. Krüger, in “Structure and Properties of Glassy Polymers”, ACS Symposium Series 710, ed. by M. R. Tant and A. J. Hill (1998)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    M. H. Cohen, D. Turnbull, J. Chem. Phys. 31, 1164 (1959)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    M. H. Cohen, D. Turnbull, J. Chem. Phys. 34, 120 (1961)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    G. M. Bartenev, J. V. Zelenev, “Physik der Polymere”, VEB Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie, Leipzig (1979)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    J. K. Krüger, R. Roberts, H.-G. Unruh, K.-P. Frühauf, J. Helwig, H. Müser Progr. in Coll. & Polym. Sci. 71, 77 (1985)Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    J. K. Krüger, J. Baller, A. le Coutre, R. Peter, R. Bactavatchalou, J. Schreiber, Physical Review B, 66, 012206–1/4 (2002)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    J. K. Krüger, T. Britz, J. Baller, W. Possart, H. Neurohr; Phys. Rev. Letter, 89(28), 285701 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    J. K. Krüger, K.-P. Bohn, R. Jimenez; Condensed Matter News 5, 10 (1996)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    J. K. Krüger, K.-P. Bohn, M. Pietralla, J. Schreiber; J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 8, 10863 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    J. K. Krüger, K.-P. Bohn, J. Schreiber; Phys. Rev. B 54, 15767 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    J. K. Krüger, K.-P. Bohn, R. Jimenez, J. Schreiber; Coll. Polym. Sci. 274, 490 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    K.-P. Bohn, J. K. Krüger; American Chem. Soc., Washington, DC, Developed from a symposium sponsored by the Division of Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering at the 213th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, San Francisco, California, April 13–17 (1997)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    J. K. Krüger, K.-P. Bohn, M. Matsukawa; Phase Transitions 65, 279–289 (1998)Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    J. K. Krüger, T. Britz, A. le Coutre, J. Baller, W. Possart, P. Alnot, R. Sanctuary, New Journ. Phys, 5, 80.1–80.11 (2003)Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    G. Rehage, J. Macromol Sci., Phys., 818, 423 (1980)Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    F. R. Schwarzl, F. Zahradnik, Rheol. Acta, 19, 137 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    W. Hayes, R. Loudon, “Scattering of Light By Crystals”, John Wiley (1978)Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    B. Chu, “Laser Light Scattering”, Academic Press (1974)Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    B. J. Berne, R. Pecora, “Dynamical Light Scattering”, John Wiley (1975)Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    J. K. Krüger, A. Marx, L. Peetz, R. Roberts, H.-G. Unruh, Colloid & Polymer Sci., 264, 403–414 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    J. K. Krüger, in “Optical Techniques to Characterize Polymer Systems”, edited by H. Bässler, Elsevier (1989)Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    J. K. Krüger, J. Embs, J. Brierley, R. Jimenez; J. Phys. D – Appl. Phys. 31, 1913 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    H. Baur, “Thermophysics of Polymers, I: Theory”, Springer Verlag (1999)Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    A. J. Kovacs, in “Structure and Mobility in Molecular and Atomic Glasses”, Ed. By J. M. O'Reilly and M. Goldstein, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 371, 38 (1981)ADSGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    A. J. Kovacs, Fortschr. Hochpolym. Forschung, 3, 394 (1963)Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    K.-P. Frühauf, J. Helwig, H. E. Müser, J. K. Krüger, R. Roberts, Colloid & Polymer Science 266, 814 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    H. Seliger, M. B. Bitar, H. Nguyen-Trong, A. Marx, R. Roberts, J. K. Krüger, H.-G. Unruh; Macromol. Chem. 185, 1335–1360 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    J. K. Krüger, A. Marx, R. Roberts, H.-G. Unruh, M. B. Bitar, H. Nguyen- Trong, H. Seliger; Maromol. Chem. 185, 1469–1491 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    J. K. Krüger, Th. Britz, J. Baller, W. Possart, H. Neurohr, Phys. Rev. Letter 89, 285701 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    M. Matsukawa, N. Ohtori, I. Nagai, K.-P. Bohn, J. K. Krüger, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2976 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    J. K. Krüger, K.-P. Bohn, M. Matsukawa, Phase Transitions 65, 279–289 (1998)Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    J. K. Krüger, M. Veith, R. Elsäßer, W. Manglkammer, A. le Coutre, J. Baller, M. Henkel, Ferroelectrics, 259, 27–36 (2001)Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Frenkel, “Kinetic Theory of Liquids”, Dover Publications, New York, 1955Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    R. Holtwick, “Niedermolekulare Flüssigkeiten in nano-porigen Trägermaterialien – zur Natur des Glasübergangs”, Dissertation Universitätdes Saarlandes, Saarbrücken (1998)Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    K. Knorr, A. Loidl, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5387 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    J. Hessinger, K. Knorr, Phys. Rev. Letter, 63, 2749 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    R. Böhmer, A. Loidl, Phys. Rev. B 42, 1439–1443 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    J. K. Krüger, R. Jiménez, K.-P. Bohn, J. Petersson, J. Albers, K. Klöpperpieper, E. Sauerland, H. E. Müser, Phys. Rev. B Cond. Matter, 42, 8537 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    R. Jiménez, B. Jiménez, J. K. Krüger, J. Schreiber, F. Sayetat, F. Mauvy, Ferroelectrics 157, 141 (1994)Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    E. M. Brody, C. J. Lubell, CH. L. Beatty, J. Pol. Sci., Pol. Phys. Ed., 13, 295 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    E. Grüneisen, Ann. d. Physik, 26, 211 and 393 (1908)ADSGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    W. Ludwig, “Festkörperphysik”, Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft (1978)Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    G. Leibfried, W. Ludwig, Solid State Physics, 12 (1961)Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    T. H. K. Barron, J. G. Collins, G. K. White, Adv. Phys. 29, 609 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    K. Brugger, T. C. Fritz, Phys. Rev. 157, 524 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    M. H. Cohen, D. Turnbull, J. Chem. Phys. 31, 1164 (1959)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    J. J. Prejean, in “Dynamics of Disordered Materials”, Ed. by D. Richter, A. J. Dianoux, W. Petry and J. Teixeira, Proceedings in Physics 37, 242, Springer (1989)Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    J. K. Krüger, R. Roberts, H.-G. Unruh, K.-P. Frühauf, J. Helwig, H. E. Müser, Progress in Colloid & Polymer Science 71, 77 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    J. K. Krüger, in “Optical Techniques to Characterize Polymer Systems”, Ed. by H. Bässler, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York 1989Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    G. Grimvall, “Thermophysical Properties of Materials” North-Holland (1986)Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Frenkel, “Kinetic Theory of Liquids”, Dover Publications, New York, 1955Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    H. A. Lorentz, Wied. Ann. Phys., 9, 641 (1880)ADSGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    L. V. Lorenz, Wied. Ann. Phys., 11, 70 (1880)ADSGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    J. K. Krüger, K. P. Bohn, R. Jimenez, Condensed Matter News 5, 10 (1996)Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    J. K. Krüger, K. P. Bohn, R. Jimenez, J. Schreiber, Colloid & Polymer Science 274, 490 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    M. P. Stevens, “Polymer Chemistry an Introduction”, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company (1975)Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    M. H. Cohen, D. Turnbull, J. Chem. Phys. 34, 120 (1961)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    J. R. Rabek, “Experimental Methods in Polymer Chemistry”, John Wiley (1980)Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    B. Wunderlich, “Macromolecular Physics”, Vol. 1–3, Academic Press (1973)Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    R. Zwanzig, R. D. Mountain J. Chem. Phys 43, 4464 (1965)MathSciNetCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    J. K. Krüger, J. Baller, A. le Coutre, R. Peter, R. Bactavatchalou, J. Schreiber, Physical Review B, 66, 012206–1/4 (2002)Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    J. K. Krüger, T. Britz, A. le Coutre, J. Baller, W. Possart, P. Alnot, R. Sanctuary, New Journ. Phys, 5, 80.1–80.11 (2003)Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    C. Vergnat, M. Philipp, Diplomarbeiten, Saarbrücken, 2006, to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    C. Truesdell, “Mechanics of Solids”, Vol. IV, Waves in Elastic and Viscoelastic Solids” Springer Verlag (1974)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. K. Krüger
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. Alnot
    • 1
    • 3
  • J. Baller
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. Bactavatchalou
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • S. Dorosz
    • 1
    • 3
  • M. Henkel
    • 1
    • 3
  • M. Kolle
    • 1
    • 4
  • S. P. Krüger
    • 1
    • 3
  • U. Müller
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • M. Philipp
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • W. Possart
    • 1
    • 5
  • R. Sanctuary
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ch. Vergnat
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratoire Européen de RechercheUniversitaire Sarre-Lorraine-(Luxembourg)Luxembourg
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Physique des MatériauxUniversité du LuxembourgLuxembourg
  3. 3.Boulevard des AiguillettesUniversité Henri Poincaré, Nancy 1NancyFrance
  4. 4.ExperimentalphysikUniversität des SaarlandesSaarbrückenGermany
  5. 5.Universität des Saarlandes, WerkstoffwissenschaftenSaarbrückenGermany

Personalised recommendations