Well-founded semantics for deductive object-oriented database languages

  • Wolfgang May
  • Bertram Ludäscher
  • Georg Lausen
Formal Sematics
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1341)


We present a well-founded semantics for deductive object-oriented database (dood) languages by applying the alternating-fixpoint characterization of the well-founded model to them. In order to compute the state sequence, states are explicitly integrated by making them first-class citizens of the underlying language. The concept is applied to Florid, an implementation of F-Logic, previously supporting only inflationary negation. Using our approach, well-founded models of F-Logic programs can be computed.

The method is also applicable to arbitrary dood languages which provide a sufficiently flexible syntax and semantics. Given an implementation of the underlying database language, any program given in this language can be evaluated wrt. the well-founded semantics.


Logic Program State Sequence Scalar Method Dynamic Object Class Hierarchy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [AdB95]
    S. Abiteboul and J. V. den Bussche. Deep Equality Revisited..Google Scholar
  2. [AG91]
    S. Abiteboul and S. Grumbach. A rule based language with functions and sets. ACM Transactions on Database Systems, 16(1):1–30, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [AHV95]
    S. Abiteboul, R. Hull, and V. Vianu. Foundations of Databases. Addison Wesley, 1995.Google Scholar
  4. [AK92]
    S. Abiteboul and P. C. Kanellakis. Object Identity as a Query Language Primitive. In F. Bancilhon, C. Delobel, and P. Kanellakis, editors, Building an Object-Oriented Database System — The Story of O 2, chapter 5, pages 98–127. Morgan Kaufmann, 1992.Google Scholar
  5. [BJZ94]
    J. B. Bocca, M. Jarke, and C. Zaniolo, editors. Proc. Intl. Conference on Very Large Data Bases, Santiago de Chile, 1994.Google Scholar
  6. [BPF+94]
    M. L. Barja, N. W. Paton, A. A. A. Fernandes, M. H. Williams, and A. Dinn. An Effective Deductive Object-Oriented Database Through Language Integration. In Bocca et al. [BJZ94], pages 463–474.Google Scholar
  7. [CCCR+90]
    F. Cacace, S. Ceri, S. Crespi-Reghizzi, L. Tanca, and R. Zicari. Integrating Object-Oriented Data Modeling with a Rule-Based Programming Paradigm. In H. Garcia-Molina and H. V. Jagadish, editors, Proc. ACM SIGMOD Intl. Conference on Management of Data, pages 225–236, 1990.Google Scholar
  8. [CTT93]
    S. Ceri, K. Tanaka, and S. Tsur, editors. Proc. Intl. Conference on Deductive and Object-Oriented Databases (DOOD), number 760 in LNCS. Springer, 1993.Google Scholar
  9. [CW89]
    W. Chen and D. S. Warren. C-Logic for complex objects. In Proc. ACM Symposium on Principles of Database Systems, pages 369–378, 1989.Google Scholar
  10. [Dix95]
    J. Dix. Semantics of Logic Programs: Their Intuitions and Formal Properties. In A. Fuhrmann and H. Rott, editors, Logic, Action and Information. de Gruyter, 1995.Google Scholar
  11. [Dun95]
    P. M. Dung. On the Acceptability of Arguments and its Fundamental Role in Nonmonotonic Reasoning, Logic Programming and N-Person Games. Artificial Intelligence, 77:312–357, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [FHK+97]
    J. Frohn, R. Himmeröder, P.-T. Kandzia, G. Lausen, and C. Schlepphorst. FLORID: A Prototype for F-Logic. In Proc. Intl. Conference on Data Engineering, 1997.Google Scholar
  13. [FLU94]
    J. Frohn, G. Lausen, and H. Uphoff. Access to Objects by Path Expressions and Rules. In Bocca et al. [BJZ94].Google Scholar
  14. [HY90]
    R. Hull and M. Yoshikawa. ILOG: Declarative Creation and Manipulation of Object Identifiers. In D. McLeod, R. Sacks-Davis, and H.-J. Schek, editors, Proc. Intl. Conference on Very Large Data Bases, pages 455–468, Brisbane, 1990.Google Scholar
  15. [KLW95]
    M. Kifer, G. Lausen, and J. Wu. Logical Foundations of Object-Oriented and Frame-Based Languages. Journal of the ACM, 42(4):741–843, July 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [KRS95]
    D. B. Kemp, K. Ramamohanarao, and P. J. Stuckey. ELS Programs and the Efficient Evaluation of Non-Stratified Programs by Transformation to ELS..Google Scholar
  17. [KW93]
    M. Kifer and J. Wu. A logic for programming with complex objects. Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 47(1):77–120, August 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [LHL95]
    B. Ludäscher, U. Hamann, and G. Lausen. A Logical Framework for Active Rules. In Proc. 7th Intl. Conf. on Management of Data (COMAD), Pune, India, December 1995. Tata McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  19. [Liu96]
    M. Liu. ROL: A Deductive Object Base Language. Information Systems, 21(5):431–457, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [LMV95]
    T. W. Ling, A. O. Mendelzon, and L. Vieille, editors. Proc. Intl. Conference on Deductive and Object-Oriented Databases (DOOD), number 1013 in LNCS, Singapore, 1995. Springer.Google Scholar
  21. [Mai86]
    D. Maier. A logic for objects. In Workshop on Foundations of Deductive Databases and Logic Programming, pages 6–26, 1986.Google Scholar
  22. [MR93]
    I. S. Mumick and K. A. Ross. Noodle: A Language for Declarative Querying in an Object-Oriented Database. In Ceri et al. [CTT93].Google Scholar
  23. [MSL97]
    W. May, C. Schlepphorst, and G. Lausen. Integrating Dynamic Aspects into Deductive Object-Oriented Databases. In A. Geppert and M. Berndtsson, editors, Proc. of the and Intl. Workshop on Rules in Database Systems (RIDS), LNCS, Skövde, Sweden, 1997.Google Scholar
  24. [VG93]
    A. Van Gelder. The Alternating Fixpoint of Logic Programs with Negation. Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 47(1):185–221, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [VGRS88]
    A. Van Gelder, K. Ross, and J. Schlipf. Unfounded Sets and Well-Founded Semantics for General Logic Programs. In Proc. ACM Symposium on Principles of Database Systems, pages 221–230, 1988.Google Scholar
  26. [ZAO93]
    C. Zaniolo, N. Arni, and K. Ong. Negation and Aggregates in Recursive Rules: the LDL++ Approach. In Ceri et al. [CTT93].Google Scholar
  27. [ZFB97]
    U. Zukowski, B. Freitag, and S. Brass. Improving the Alternating Fixpoint: The Transformation Approach. In 4th Intl. Conference on Logic Programming and Non-Monotonic Reasoning (LPNMR'97), LNAI, Berlin, 1997. Springer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang May
    • 1
  • Bertram Ludäscher
    • 1
  • Georg Lausen
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für InformatikUniversität FreiburgGermany

Personalised recommendations