Hiding data in the OSI network model

  • Theodore G. Handel
  • Maxwell T. SandfordII
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1174)


Rather than searching for the holy grail of steganography, this paper presents the basis for development of a tool kit for creating and exploiting hidden channels within the standard design of network communications protocols. The Alice and Bob analogy, derived from cryptology, is used to present network protocols in a way that more clearly defines the problem. Descriptions of typical hidden channel design for each layer of the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) network model are given. Methods of hiding and detection probabilities are summarized. Denying Bob and Alice the ability to communicate electronically may be the only absolute solution.


Transmission Control Protocol Physical Layer Hide Data Covert Channel Presentation Layer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Additional Reading

  1. Tomassini, Marco. 1991, “Programming with Sockets.” The C Users Journal Volume 9 (September 1991): 39–56.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, M. Steven. 1992. “Network Delivers.” “Windows Tech Journal”, Volume 1 (August 1992): 22–29.Google Scholar
  3. Volkman, Victor R. 1992. “Plug into TCP/IP with Windows Sockets.” Windows/DOS Developer's Journal Volume 3 (December 1992): 6–17.Google Scholar
  4. Calbaum, Mike; Porcarro, Frank; Ruegsegger, Mark; Backman, Bruce. 1993. “Untangling the Windows Sockets API.” Dr. Dobb's Journal Volume 18 (February 1993): 66–71.Google Scholar
  5. Jablon, David P. 1994. “Windows Sockets.” UNIX Review Volume 12 (October 1994): 37–44.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theodore G. Handel
    • 1
  • Maxwell T. SandfordII
    • 1
  1. 1.Weapon Design Technology GroupLos Alamos National LaboratoryLos Alamos

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