Specialization of recursive predicates

  • Henrik Boström

DOI: 10.1007/3-540-59286-5_51

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 912)
Cite this paper as:
Boström H. (1995) Specialization of recursive predicates. In: Lavrac N., Wrobel S. (eds) Machine Learning: ECML-95. ECML 1995. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence), vol 912. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg


When specializing a recursive predicate in order to exclude a set of negative examples without excluding a set of positive examples, it may not be possible to specialize or remove any of the clauses in a refutation of a negative example without excluding any positive examples. A previously proposed solution to this problem is to apply program transformation in order to obtain non-recursive target predicates from recursive ones. However, the application of this method prevents recursive specializations from being found. In this work, we present the algorithm SPECTRE II which is not limited to specializing non-recursive predicates. The key idea upon which the algorithm is based is that it is not enough to specialize or remove clauses in refutations of negative examples in order to obtain correct specializations, but it is sometimes necessary to specialize clauses that appear only in refutations of positive examples. In contrast to its predecessor SPECTRE, the new algorithm is not limited to specializing clauses defining one predicate only, but may specialize clauses defining multiple predicates. Furthermore, the positive and negative examples are no longer required to be instances of the same predicate. It is proven that the algorithm produces a correct specialization when all positive examples are logical consequences of the original program, there is a finite number of derivations of positive and negative examples and when no positive and negative examples have the same sequence of input clauses in their refutations.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henrik Boström
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Computer and Systems SciencesStockholm UniversityKistaSweden

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