Towards a formalization of programming-by-difference
Programming-by-difference is a popular technique for incremental object-oriented programming, whereby a new class is built from an existing class using the inheritance mechanism. We give a formalization of this technique using model-based class specifications. This formalization is given in terms of a relation, as-a, between class specifications. We compare this relation with the established reification relation and with the is-a relation, and give some examples.
Keywordsinheritance incremental programming design-by-contract subtype contravariance
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