Genotype-phenotype-mapping and neutral variation — A case study in Genetic Programming

  • Wolfgang Banzhaf
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 866)


We propose the application of a genotype-phenotype mapping to the solution of constrained optimization problems. The method consists of strictly separating the search space of genotypes from the solution space of phenotypes. A mapping from genotypes into phenotypes provides for the appropriate expression of information represented by the genotypes. The mapping is constructed as to guarantee feasibility of phenotypic solutions for the problem under study. This enforcing of constraints causes multiple genotypes to result in one and the same phenotype. Neutral variants are therefore frequent and play an important role in maintaining genetic diversity. As a specific example, we discuss Binary Genetic Programming (BGP), a variant of Genetic Programming that uses binary strings as genotypes and program trees as phenotypes.


Genetic Program Constrain Optimization Problem Binary String Neutral Variant Fitness Case 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang Banzhaf
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceDortmund UniversityDortmundGermany

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