# Inverting implication with small training sets

- First Online:

DOI: 10.1007/3-540-57868-4_49

- Cite this paper as:
- Aha D.W., Lapointe S., Ling C.X., Matwin S. (1994) Inverting implication with small training sets. In: Bergadano F., De Raedt L. (eds) Machine Learning: ECML-94. ECML 1994. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence), vol 784. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

## Abstract

We present an algorithm for inducing recursive clauses using inverse implication (rather than inverse resolution) as the underlying generalization method. Our approach applies to a class of logic programs similar to the class of primitive recursive functions. Induction is performed using a small number of positive examples that need not be along the same resolution path. Our algorithm, implemented in a system named CRUSTACEAN, locates matched lists of generating terms that determine the pattern of decomposition exhibited in the (target) recursive clause. Our theoretical analysis defines the class of logic programs for which our approach is complete, described in terms characteristic of other ILP approaches. Our current implementation is considerably faster than previously reported. We present evidence demonstrating that, given randomly selected inputs, increasing the number of positive examples increases accuracy and reduces the number of outputs. We relate our approach to similar recent work on inducing recursive clauses.

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