Data encapsulation and modularity: Three views of inheritance
A semantic domain based on state-machines is proposed for object-orientation in order to clarify the most important constructions: aggregation, interconnection and specialization. Three kinds of specialization are discussed: subtyping (specialization without side-effects and no non-monotonic overriding); monotonic specialization (possibly with side-effects but still with monotonic overriding only); and non-monotonic specialization (possibly with side-effects and non-monotonic overriding).
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