Cognitio: An extended computational theory of cognition

  • Taizan Chan
  • Yam San Chee
  • Eng Lian Lim
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 608)


Currently, there are only two detailed theories of cognition: ACT* and its successor PUPS (Anderson, 1983; Anderson, 1989) and SOAR (Laird, Newell, & Rosenbloom, 1987). These theories of cognition only account for learning from a procedural chunking point of view. They exclude other aspects of cognition such as episodic memory and declarative chunking (or schema formation) which are manifested in the learning behavior of people. In this paper, we outline COGNITIO, an extended theory of cognition based on ACT*, that will account parsimoniously for the following phenomena evident in learning: declarative chunking, procedural chunking (or compilation), and problem solving based on episodic memory. We plan to use COGNITIO as a theoretical foundation for guiding the design of the student modeling, diagnosis, and remediation components of an intelligent Smalltalk tutor.


Cognition Intelligent Tutoring Systems Learning Knowledge Compilation Episodic Memory Schema Knowledge Representation Architecture of Cognition 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, J.R. (1983). The Architecture of Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J.R., Farrell, R., & Sauers, R. (1984). Learning to program in Lisp. Cognitive Science, 8, 87–129.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, J.R., & Reiser, B. (1985). The Lisp Tutor. BYTE, April 1985, 159–175.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, J.R. (1987). Skill acquisition: Compilation of weak-method problem solutions. Psychological Review, 94(2), 192–210.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, J.R. (1989). A theory of the origins of human knowledge. Artificial Intelligence, 40, 313–351.Google Scholar
  6. Goldberg, A. & Robson, D. (1989). Smalltalk-80: The Language. New York, NY: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  7. Kolodner, J. L. (1983). Towards an understanding of the role of experience in the evolution from novice to expert. International journal of Man-Machine Studies, 19, 497–518.Google Scholar
  8. Laird, J.E., Rosenbloom, P.S., & Newell, A. (1986). Chunking in Soar: The anatomy of a general learning mechanism. Machine Learning, 1, 11–46.Google Scholar
  9. Laird, J.E., Newell, A., & Rosenbloom, P.S. (1987). Soar: An architecture for general intelligence. Artificial Intelligence, 33, 1–64.Google Scholar
  10. Mueller, E.T. (1990). Daydreaming In Humans and Machines. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  11. Neves, D.M., & Anderson, J.R. (1981). Knowledge compilation: Mechanisms for the automization of cognitive skills. In J.R. Anderson (Ed.), Cognitive Skills and Their Acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  12. Payne, S.J. (1988). Methods and mental models in theories of cognitive skill. In J. Self (Ed.), AI and Human Learning, Intelligent computer aided instruction. New York, NY: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  13. Pirolli, P. (1991). Effects of examples and their explanations in a lesson on recursion: a production system analysis. Cognition and Instruction, 8(3), 207–259.Google Scholar
  14. Schank, R.C. (1982). Dynamic Memory — A Theory of Reminding and Learning in Computers and People. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Slade, S. (1991). Case-based reasoning: A research paradigm. AI Magazine, Spring, 42–55.Google Scholar
  16. Spensley, F., Elsom-Cook, M., Byerley, P., Brooks, P., Federici, M., & Scaroni, C. (1990). Using multiple teaching strategies in an ITS. In C. Frasson & G. Gauthier (Eds.), Intelligent Tutoring Systems: At the Crossroad of Artificial Intelligence and Education. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  17. Weber, G., Waloszek, G., & Wender, K.F. (1988). The role of episodic memory in an intelligent tutoring system. In J. Self (Ed.), AI and Human Learning — Intelligent computer aided instruction New York, NY: Chapman and HallGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taizan Chan
    • 1
  • Yam San Chee
    • 1
  • Eng Lian Lim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information Systems and Computer ScienceNational University of SingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations