# Data models and languages for databases

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## Abstract

The seventies have been the decade of the relational model. In the eighties, there is a renewed interest and activity in the database area. Most of it is concerned with so called "advanced systems for new types of applications". In this activity, much emphasis is placed on the development of new data models and languages. The data models include complex objects, which are in essence hierarchical structures, and various flavors of object oriented models. Data manipulation languages include extensions of the classical algebra and calculus based languages to some of the new models, logic programming style languages, and versions of object oriented languages. The paper discusses extensions of the relational model that allow users to specify and manipulate structurally complex objects and their languages. The emphasis is on formal models and languages. In particular, we describe a formal model for objects with identity, and declarative languages for the model.

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