A Solution to the GHI Problem for Best-First Search

  • Dennis M. Breuker
  • H. Jaap van den Herik
  • Jos W. H. M. Uiterwijk
  • L. Victor Allis
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1558)


In a search graph a node’s value may be dependent on the path leading to it. Different paths may lead to different values. Hence, it is difficult to determine the value of any node unambiguously. The problem is known as the graph-history-interaction (GHI) problem. This paper provides a solution for best-first search. First, we give a precise formulation of the problem. Then, for best-first search and for other searches, we review earlier proposals to overcome the problem. Next, our solution is given in detail. Here we introduce the notion of twin nodes, enabling a distinction of nodes according to their history. The implementation, called BTA (Base-Twin Algorithm), is performed for pn search, a best-first search algorithm. It is generally applicable to other best-first search algorithms. Experimental results in the field of computer chess confirm the claim that the GHI problem has been solved for best-first search.


graph-history interaction (GHI) problem best-first search base-twin algorithm (BTA) 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dennis M. Breuker
    • 1
  • H. Jaap van den Herik
    • 1
  • Jos W. H. M. Uiterwijk
    • 1
  • L. Victor Allis
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversiteit MaastrichtMD MaastrichtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Quintiq B.V.AV’ s HertogenboschThe Netherlands

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