Relations between Skill and the Use of Terms

An Analysis of Protocols of the Game of Go
  • Atsushi Yoshikawa
  • Takuya Kojima
  • Yasuki Saito
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1558)

Abstract

The use of Go terms while playing Go differs according to the player’s skill. We conduct three experiments to examine this in detail. In the first experiment, players’ spontaneous utterances (called protocols) were collected. We analyze these protocols in two ways. One is the number of Go terms used, and the other is the contents of the terms, such as strategic or tactical. The second experiment examines how well the players knew the configurations of the stones. From the two experiments, we find that even if the subjects know of many Go terms, their use depends on the subject’s skill. The third experiment considers “Soudan-Go,” where two players form a team. They are in the same room and can freely talk to each other; their spontaneous utterances (protocols) were collected. We also analyze reports of “Houchi Soudan-Go,” which is a Soudan-Go match between professional players. We find that expert players often use Go terms and they understood their partner’s intentions without needing a full explanation. Intermediate level players often talked over their plan and their opponent’s plan using many Go terms. From our analyses we developed a hypothesis which we call the iceberg model. The purpose of the model is to explain the structure of a term in the human brain from the viewpoint of the role of the term. Although this is still a hypothesis, it will become an important guide when carrying out protocol analyses and modeling the thought processes of Go players.

keyword

Cognitive science Go Special terms Expert knowledge Iceberg model 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    R. Bozulich: The Go Player’s ALMANAC, The Ishi Press, (1992).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. G. Chase and H. A. Simon: Perception in Chess, Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 4, pp. 55–81 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. D. de Groot: Thought and Choice in Chess, The Hague: Mouton (1965).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. A. Ericsson, and H. A. Simon: Protocol Analysis-Verbal Reports as Data (Revised Edition), The MIT Press, (1993).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    F. Gobet and H. A. Simon: Templates in Chess Memory: A Mechanism for Recalling Several Boards, Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 31, pp. 1–40 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. Saito and A. Yoshikawa: How to make Stronger Go Programs (in Japanese), in IPSJ SIGAI, No. 91-7, pp. 55–64, (1993).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y. Saito and A. Yoshikawa: Cognitive Studies for the Game of Go (in Japanese), in Proc. of the Game Programming Workshop in Japan, Hakone, pp. 44–55, (1994).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y. Saito and A. Yoshikawa: Do Go Players think in Words?, Proc. of the 2nd Game Programming Workshop, pp. 118–127, (1995).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Saito and A. Yoshikawa: An Analysis of Strong Go-players’ Protocols, Proc. of the 3rd Game Programming Workshop, pp. 66–75 (1996).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y. Saito: Psychological and Cognitive Researches on Games (in Japanese), Proc. of the 3rd Game Programming Workshop, pp. 44–55 (1996).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Y. Saito: Cognitive Scientific Study of Go (in Japanese), Doctoral dissertation, University of Tokyo, (1996).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    N. Shingaki and A. Yoshikawa: Spatial chunk and sequential chunk of Go (in Japanese), Proceedings of Japanese Society of Cognitive Science 11th annual conference, pp. 102–103 (1994).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. Shirayanagi: Basic Study of Knowledge Processing for Go, NTT Internal Technical Report, 12967, (1986).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Yoshikawa and Y. Saito: Cognition of Board Situation in Go (in Japanese), IPSJ SIGAI, No. 91-6, pp. 41–53, (1993).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Yoshikawa and Y. Saito: Perception in Tsume-Go under Three-second. Time Pressure (in Japanese), Proc. of the 2nd Game Programming Workshop, pp. 105–112, (1995).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. Yoshikawa and Y. Saito: Can not solve Tsume-Go problems without looking ahead? (in Japanese), Proc. of the 3rd Game Programming Workshop, pp. 76–83 (1996).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Yoshikawa and Y. Saito: Hybrid Pattern Knowledge-Go players’ knowledge representation for solving Tsume-Go problems-, in 1st International Conference on Cognitive Science in Korea, pp. 134–139 (1997).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Yoshikawa: The forefront of the computer Go studies (in Japanese), Proceedings of Japanese Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics annual conference 1998, pp. 248–249 (1998).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Yoshikawa: in preparation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atsushi Yoshikawa
    • 1
  • Takuya Kojima
    • 1
  • Yasuki Saito
    • 1
  1. 1.NTTBasic Research LaboratoriesKanagawaJapan

Personalised recommendations