Mix-Based Electronic Payments

  • Markus Jacobson
  • David M’Raïhi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1556)


We introduce a new payment architecture that limits the power of an attacker while providing the honest user with privacy. Our proposed method defends against all known attacks on the bank, implements revocable privacy, and results in an efficient scheme which is well-suited for smartcard-based payment schemes over the Internet.


Blind Signature Payment Scheme Bank Server Encrypt Message Transaction Center 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    M. Abe, “Universally Verifiable Mix-net with Verification Work Independent of the Number of Mix-centers,” Eurocrypt’ 98.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. Brickell, P. Gemmell, D. Kravitz, “Trustee-based Tracing Extensions to Anonymous Cash and the Making of Anonymous Change,” Proc. 6th Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA), 1995, pp. 457–466.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Bürk, A. Pfitzmann, “Digital Payment Systems Enabling Security and Unobservability,” Computers and Security 8/5 1989, pp. 399–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Camenisch, U. Maurer, M. Stadler, “Digital Payment Systems with Passive Anonymity-Revoking Trustees,” Computer Security-ESORICS 96, volume 1146, pp. 33–43.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Camenisch, J-M. Piveteau, M. Stadler, “An Efficient Fair Payment System,” 3rd ACM Conf. on Comp. and Comm. Security, 1996, pp. 88–94.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. Chaum, “Untraceable electronic mail, return addresses, and digital pseudonyms,” Communications of the ACM, ACM 1981, pp. 84–88Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. Chaum, “Blind Signatures for Untraceable Payments,” Advances in Cryptology-Proceedings of Crypto’ 82, 1983, pp. 199–203.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Chaum, H. Van Antwerpen, “Undeniable Signatures,” Crypto’ 89, pp. 212–216Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Chaum, A. Fiat and M. Naor, “Untraceable Electronic Cash,” Advances in Cryptology-Proceedings of Crypto’ 88, pp. 319–327.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
    G.I. Davida, Y. Frankel, Y. Tsiounis, and M. Yung, “Anonymity Control in ECash Systems,” Financial Cryptography 97.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. Frankel, Y. Tsiounis, and M. Yung, “Indirect Discourse Proofs: Achieving Efficient Fair Off-Line E-Cash,” Advances in Cryptology-Proceedings of Asiacrypt 96, pp. 286–300.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Franklin and M. Yung, “Towards Provably Secure Efficient Electronic Cash,” Columbia Univ. Dept of C.S. TR CUCS-018-92, April 24, 1992. (Also in Icalp-93, July 93, Lund Sweden, LNCS Springer Verlag).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Franklin and M. Yung, “Blind Weak Signatures and its Applications: Putting Non-Cryptographic Secure Computation to Work,” Advances in Cryptology-Proceedings of Eurocrypt’ 94Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gemplus, “Gemplus Public Key (GPK) Cards”, October 1996.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hitachi, “Product directory: H8 Range”, 1997.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Jakobsson and M. Yung, “Revocable and Versatile Electronic Money,” 3rd ACM Conference on Comp. and Comm. Security, 1996, pp. 76–87.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Jakobsson and M. Yung, “Applying Anti-Trust Policies to Increase Trust in a Versatile E-Money System,” Financial Cryptography’ 97.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Jakobsson and M. Yung, ”Distributed ‘Magic Ink’ Signatures,” Eurocrypt’ 97, pp. 450–464Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Jakobsson, “Privacy vs. Authenticity,” PhD Thesis, University of California, San Diego, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, 1997. Available at
  21. 21.
    M. Jakobsson, “A Practical Mix,” Eurocrypt’ 98, available at
  22. 22.
    S. Low, N. Maxemchuk, “Anonymous Credit Cards,” 2nd ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, 1994, pp. 108–117.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
    D. M’Raïhi, “Cost-Effective Payment Schemes with Privacy Regulation,” Advances in Cryptology-Proceedings of Asiacrypt’96.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    National Institute for Standards and Technology, “Digital Signature Standard (DSS),” Federal Register Vol 56(169), Aug 30, 1991.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    W. Ogata, K. Kurosawa, K. Sako, K. Takatani, “Fault Tolerant Anonymous Channel,” Information and Communications Security,’ 97, pp. 440–444Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Reiter, A. Rubin, “Crowds: Anonymity for Web Transactions,” ACM Transactions on Information and System Security, April, 1998.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. Rivest, A. Shamir and L. Adleman, “A method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-Key Cryptosystems”, Communications of the ACM, v. 21,2, Feb 1978, pp. 120–126.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Siemens, “ICs for Chip Cards”, Customer Information, June 1997.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    D. Simon, “Anonymous Communication and Anonymous Cash,” Crypto’ 96, pp. 61–73.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    S. von Solms and D. Naccache, “On Blind Signatures and Perfect Crimes,” Computers and Security, 111992 pp. 581–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    M. Stadler, J-M. Piveteau, J. Camenisch, “Fair Blind Signatures,” Advances in Cryptology-Proceedings of Eurocrypt’ 95, 1995.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    P. Syverson, D. Goldschlag, M. Reed, “Anonymous connections and onion routing,” IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 1997.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    B. Witter, “The Dark Side of Digital Cash,” Legal Times, January 30, 1995Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Jacobson
    • 1
  • David M’Raïhi
    • 2
  1. 1.Bell LaboratoriesInformation Sciences Research CenterMurray Hill
  2. 2.Gemplus CorporationRedwood City

Personalised recommendations