Photomechanics pp 103-151 | Cite as

Principles of Holographic Interferometry and Speckle Metrology

  • Pramod K. Rastogi
Part of the Topics in Applied Physics book series (TAP, volume 77)


Because of their nonintrusive, real-time and full-field features, holographic interferometry [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10] and speckle metrology [11,12,13,14,15] [16,17,18,19] have received considerable attention in experimental mechanics. As a result, a broad range of measurement possibilities have emerged that are capable of handling challenges that applications pose to test methods. The active interest in these fields is testified by a proliferation of research papers that these fields have produced over the last three decades. It would thus be illusive to attempt to cover the subject in depth and in its entirety in the present review. The intent of this chapter is limited to describing a sample of approaches and techniques applied to deformation analysis and shape measurements, and to presenting examples drawn from these areas. The main emphasis is on giving the reader some appreciation of the variety of basic procedures that have been developed over the years for deformation measurement.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    R. K. Erf: Holographic Non-Destructive Testing, Academic, New York (1974)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. M. Vest: Holographic Interferometry, Interscience, New York (1979)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y. I. Ostrovsky, M. M. Butusov, G. V. Ostrovskaya: Interferometry by Holography, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (1980)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. Schumann, M. Dubas: Holographic Interferometry, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (1979)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. Schumann, J. P. Zürcher, D. Cuche: Holography and Deformation Analysis, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (1985)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. I. Ostrovsky, V. P. Schepinov, V. V. Yakovlev: Holographic Interferometry in Experimental Analysis, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (1991)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. K. Rastogi: Holographic Interferometry-Principles and Methods, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (1994)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. Kreis: Holographic Interferometry-Principles and Methods, Akademie, Berlin (1996)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. Abramson: The Making and Evaluation of Holograms, Academic, New York (1981)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. S. Sirohi, K. D. Hinsch: Selected Papers on Holographic Interferometry-Principles and Techniques, SPIE Milestone Ser. 144, SPIE Optical Eng., Washington (1998)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. E. Ennos: Speckle interferometry, in J. C. Dainty: Topics in Applied Physics 9, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (1975), pp. 203–253Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. A. Stetson: A Review of Speckle Photography and Speckle Interferometry, Opt. Eng. 14, 482–489 (1975)ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. E. Ennos: Speckle interferometry, in E. Wolf: Progress in Optics 16, North-Holland, Amsterdam (1978) pp. 233–288Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. K. Erf: Speckle Metrology, Academic, New York (1978)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. A. Stetson: Miscellaneous topics in speckle metrology, in R. K. Erf: Speckle Metrology, Academic, New York, (1978) pp. 295–320Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. Jones, C. Wykes: Holographic and speckle interferometry, Cambridge Univ. Press, London (1983)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. S. Sirohi: Selected Papers on Speckle Metrology, SPIE Milestone Ser. 35, SPIE Optical Eng., Washington, DC (1991)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. S. Sirohi: Speckle Metrology, Dekker, New York (1993)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. Meinlschmidt, K. D. Hinsch, R. S. Sirohi: Selected Papers on Speckle Pattern Interferometry-Principles and Practice, SPIE Milestone Ser. 132, SPIE Optical Eng., Washington, DC (1996)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. Gabor: A New Microscopic Principle, Nature 161, 777–778 (1948)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks: Wavefront Reconstruction with Di.used Illumination and Three-Dimensional Objects, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1295–1301 (1964)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. Hariharan: Optical Holography, Cambridge Univ. Press., London (1985)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    N. Abramson: Sandwich Hologram Interferometry: A New Dimension in Holographic Comparison, Appl. Opt. 13, 2019–2025 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. D. Trolinger: Application of Generalized Phase Control During Reconstruction of Flow Visualization Holography, Appl. Opt. 18, 766–774 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. Dändliker: Two-Reference-Beam Holographic Interferometry, in P. K. Rastogi (Ed.): Holographic Interferometry — Principles and Methods, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (1994) pp. 75–108Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. B. Neumann, R. C. Penn: Object Motion Compensation Using Reflection Holography, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1373 (1972)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. P. Waters: Holography, in R. K. Erf (Ed.): Holographic Nondestructive Testing, Academic, New York (1974) pp. 5–59Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    U. Schnars, W. Jüptner: Direct Recording of Holograms by a CCD Target and Numerical Reconstruction, Appl. Opt. 33, 179–181 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, H. J. Tiziani: Digital Double Pulse Holographic Interferometry for Vibration Analysis, J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    P. Hariharan, B. F. Oreb, N. Brown: A Digital Phase-Measurement System for Realtime Holographic Interferometry, Opt. Commun. 51, 393–396 (1982)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    K. Creath: Phase-Measurement Interferometry Techniques, in E. Wolf, (Ed.): Prog. Opt. 26, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1988) pp. 349–393Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. W. Robinson, G. T. Reid: Interferogram Analysis — Digital Fringe Pattern Measurement Techniques, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol (1993)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    K. Creath: Phase-Shifting Holographic Interferometry, in P. K. Rastogi, (Ed.): Holographic Interferometry — Principles and Methods, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (1994) pp. 109–150Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J. E. Greivenkamp, J. H. Bruning: Phase Shifting Interferometry, in D. Malacara (Ed.): Optical Shop Testing, Wiley, New York (1992) pp. 501–598Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    K. A. Stetson, W. R. Brohinsky: Electro-Optic Holography and its Application to Hologram Interferometry, Appl. Opt. 24, 3631–3637 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    K. A. Stetson, W. R. Brohinsky: Electro-Optic Holography System for Vibration Analysis and Nondestructive Testing, Opt. Eng. 26, 1234–1239 (1987)ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    R. J. Pryputniewicz, K. A. Stetson: Measurement of Vibration Patterns Using Electro-Optic Holography, SPIE Proc. 1162, 456–467 (1989)ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    K. A. Stetson: Phase-Step Interferometry of Irregular Shapes by Using an Edge-Following Algorithm, Appl. Opt. 31, 5320–5325 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    K. A. Stetson: A Rigorous Theory of the Fringes of Hologram Interferometry, Optik 29, 386–400 (1969)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    M. Dubas, W. Schumann: On Direct Measurement of Strain and Rotation in Holographic Interferometry Using the Line of Complete Localization, Opt. Acta 22, 807–819 (1975)ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    C. A. Sciamarella, J. A. Gilbert: A Holographic-Moiré Technique to Obtain Separate Patterns for Components of Displacement, Exp. Mech. 16, 215–220 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    P. K. Rastogi, M. Spajer, J. Monneret: In-Plane Deformation Measurement Using Holographic Moiré, Opt. Lasers Eng. 2, 79–103 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    P. K. Rastogi, E. Denarié: Visualization of In-Plane Displacement Fields by Using Phase-Shifting Holographic Moiré: Application to Crack Detection and Propagation, Appl. Opt. 31, 2402–2404 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. K. Rastogi: Holographic In-Plane Measurement Using Reference-Wave Reconstruction: Phase Stepping and Application to a Deformation Problem, Appl. Opt. 34, 7194–7196 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    L. Pirodda: Conjugate Wave Holographic Interferometry for the Measurement of In-Plane Deformations, Appl. Opt. 26, 1842–1844 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    P. K. Rastogi: A Real-Time Holographic Moiré Technique for the Measurement of Slope Change, Opt. Acta 31, 159–167 (1984)ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    P. K. Rastogi: Visualization and Measurement of Slope and Curvature Fields Using Holographic Interferometry: An Application to Flaw Detection, J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1251–1263 (1991)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    D. B. Neumann: Comparative Holography: A Technique for Eliminating Background Fringes in Holographic Interferometry, Opt. Eng. 24, 625–627 (1985)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Z. Füzessy, F. Gyimesi: Difference Holographic Interferometry: Technique for Optical Comparison, Opt. Eng. 32, 2548–2556 (1993)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    P. K. Rastogi: Comparative Holographic Interferometry: A Nondestructive Inspection System for Detection of Flaws, Exp. Mech. 25, 325–337 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    P. K. Rastogi: Comparative Phase Shifting Holographic Interferometry, Appl. Opt. 30, 722–728 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    P. K. Rastogi: Direct and Real-Time Holographic Monitoring of Relative Changes in Two Random Rough Surfaces, Phys. Rev. A 50, 1906–1908 (1994)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    K. A. Stetson, R. L. Powell: Interferometric Hologram Evaluation and Real-Time Vibration Analysis of Diffuse Objects, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1694–1695 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    R. J. Pryputniewicz: Time-Average Holography in Vibration Analysis, Opt. Eng. 24, 843–848 (1985)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    G. C. Brown, R. J. Pryputniewicz: Holographic Microscope for Measuring Displacements of Vibrating Microbeams using Time-Averaged, Electro-optic Holography, Opt. Eng. 37, 1398–1405 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    P. Hariharan, B. F. Oreb: Stroboscopic Holographic Interferometry: Applications of Digital Techniques, Opt. Commun. 59, 83–86 (1986)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    S. Nakadate: Vibration Measurement Using Phase-Shifting Time-Average Holographic Interferometry, Appl. Opt. 25, 4155–4161 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    K. A. Stetson, J. Wahid: Real-Time Phase Imaging for Nondestructive Testing, Exp. Tech. 22, 15–17 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    C. S. Vikram: Study of Vibrations, in P. K. Rastogi (Ed.): Holographic Interferometry — Principles and Methods Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (1994) pp. 293–318Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    S. Urgela: Grading of Wooden Plates for Musical Instrument making by means of Holographic Interferometry, Opt. Eng. 37, 2108–2118 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    K. A. Stetson: The Use of an Image Derotator in Hologram Interferometry and Speckle Photography of Rotating Objects, Exp. Mech. 18, 67–73 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    M. A. Beek: Pulsed Holographic Vibration Analysis on High-Speed Rotating Objects: Fringe Formation, Recording Techniques, and Practical Applications, Opt. Eng. 31, 553–561 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    J. D. Trolinger, J. C. Hsu: Flow.eld Diagnostics by Holographic Interferometry and Tomography, inW. Jüptner and W. Osten (Ed.): Fringe’93, Akademie, Berlin (1993) pp. 423–439Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    R. J. Parker, D. G. Jones: The Use of Holographic Interferometry for Turbomachinery Fan Evaluation During Rotating Tests, J. Turbomach. 110, 393–399 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    S. M. Tieng, W. Z. Lai: Temperature Measurement of Reacting Flowfield by Phase-Shifting Holographic Interferometry, J. Thermophys. Heat Trans. 6, 445–451 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    S. P. Sharma, S. M. Ru.n: Density Measurements in an Expanding Flow Using Holographic Interferometry, J. Thermophys. Heat Trans. 7, 261–268 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    T. A.W.M. Lanen: Digital Holographic Interferometry in Flow Research, Opt. Commun. 79, 386–396 (1990)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    J. R. Varner: Holographic Contouring Methods, in H. J. Caulfield (Ed.): Handbook of Optical Holography, Academic, New York (1979) pp. 595–600Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    N. Abramson: Sandwich Hologram Interferometry 3: Contouring, Appl. Opt. 15, 200–205 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    P. K. Rastogi, L. Pflug: A Fresh Approach of Phase Management to Obtain Customized Contouring of Diffuse Object Surfaces of Broadly Varying Depths Using Real-Time Holographic Interferometry, J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1233–1246 (1990)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    P. K. Rastogi, L. Pflug: A Holographic Technique Featuring Broad Range Sensitivity to Contour Diffuse Objects, J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1673–1683 (1991)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    P. Carelli, D. Paoletti, G. S. Spagnolo: Holographic Contouring Method: Application to Automatic Measurements of Surface Defects in Artwork, Opt. Eng. 30, 1294–1298 (1991)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    P. K. Rastogi, L. Pflug: Measurement of Large Out-of-Plane Displacements Using Two Source Holographic Interferometry, J. Mod. Opt. 41, 589–594 (1994)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    E. Archbold, A. E. Ennos: Displacement Measurement from Double Exposure Laser Photographs, Opt. Acta 19, 253–271 (1972)ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    R. P. Khetan, F. P. Chiang: Strain Analysis by One-Beam Laser Speckle Interferometry 1: Single Aperture Method, Appl. Opt. 15, 2205–2215 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    P. K. Rastogi (Ed.): Special Issue on Speckle Photography, Opt. Lasers Eng. 29, 81–225 (1998)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    P. Jacquot, P. K. Rastogi: In.uence of Out-of-Plane Deformation and its Elimination in White Light Speckle photography, Opt. Lasers Eng. 2, 33–55 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    H. J. Tiziani, K. Leonhardt, J. Klenk: Real Time Displacement and Tilt Analysis by a Speckle Technique Using Bi12SiO20 Crystals, Opt. Commun. 34, 327–331 (1980)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    K. Nakagawa, T. Takatsuji, T. Minemoto: Measurement of the Displacement Distribution by Speckle Photography Using BSO Crystal, Opt. Commun. 76, 206–212 (1990)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    N. Krishna Mohan, J. S. Darlin, M. H. Majles Ara, M. P. Kothiyal, R. S. Sirohi: Speckle Photography with BaTiO3 Crystal for the Measurement of In-Plane Displacement Field distribution of distant Objects, Opt. Lasers Eng. 29, 211–216 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    G. B. Smith, K. A. Stetson: Heterodyne Read-Out of Specklegram Halo Interference Fringes, Appl. Opt. 19, 3031–3033 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    J. S. Kim, S. Musazzi, V. Perini, M. Giglio: Heterodyne Read-Out System for Dual Plate Speckle Photography: Analysis of Error Sources and Performance Evaluation, Appl. Opt. 28, 1862–1868 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    G. H. Kaufmann, P. Jacquot: Phase Shifting of Whole Field Speckle Photography Fringes, Appl. Opt. 29, 3570–3572 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    D. W. Robinson: Automatic Fringe Analysis With a Computer Image-Processing System, Appl. Opt. 22, 2169–2176 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    R. Erbeck: Fast Image Processing With a Microcomputer Applied to Speckle Photography, Appl. Opt. 24, 3838–3841 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    J. M. Huntley: An Image Processing System for the Analysis of Speckle Photographs, J. Phys. E. 19, 43–49 (1986)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    F. Ansari, G. Ciurpita: Automated Fringe Measurement in Speckle Photography, Appl. Opt. 26, 1688–1692 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    F. P. Chiang, R. M. Juang: Laser Speckle Interferometry for Plate Bending Problems, Appl. Opt. 15, 2199–2204 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    H. J. Tiziani: Vibration Analysis and Deformation Measurement, in R. K. Erf (Ed.): Speckle Metrology, Academic, New York (1978) pp. 73–110Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    D. A. Gregory: Topological Speckle and Structural Inspection, in R. K. Erf (Ed.): Speckle Metrology, Academic, New York (1978) pp. 183–223Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    K. A. Stetson, I. R. Harrison: Determination of the Principle Surface Strains on Arbitrary Deformed Objects Via Tandem Speckle Photography, in: Proc. 6th Int. Conf. on Exp. Stress Analysis, Düsseldorf, pp. 149–154 (1978)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    P. K. Rastogi: Speckle Shearing Photography: A Tool for Direct Measurement of Surface Strains, Appl. Opt. 37, 1292–1298 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    P. K. Rastogi: Determination of Surface Strains by Speckle Shear Photography, Opt. Lasers Eng. 29, 103–116 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    J. A. Leendertz: Interferometric Displacement Measurement on Scattering Surfaces Utilizing Speckle Effect, J. Phys. E. 3, 214–218 (1970)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    K. A. Stetson: Analysis of Double Exposure Photography with Two Beam Illumination, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 857–861 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    P. K. Rastogi, P. Jacquot: Speckle Metrology Techniques: A Parametric Examination of the Observed Fringes, Opt. Eng. 21, 411–426 (1982)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    O. J. Lokberg: Recent Developments in Video Speckle Interferometry, in R. S. Sirohi (Ed.): Speckle Metrology, Dekker, New York (1993) pp. 157–194Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    P. K. Rastogi (Ed.): Special Issue on Speckle and Speckle Shearing Interferometry 1, Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 83–278 (1997)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    P. K. Rastogi (Ed.): Special Issue on Speckle and Speckle Shearing Interferometry 2, Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 279–460 (1997)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    D. E. Duffy: Measurement of Surface Displacement Normal to the Line of Sight, Exp. Mech. 14, 378–384 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    P. K. Rastogi, P. Jacquot: Measurement of Difference Deformation Using Speckle Interferometry, Opt. Lett. 12, 596–598 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    A. R. Ganesan, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi: Real-time Comparative Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry, Opt. Commun. 64, 501–506 (1987)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    S. Nakadate, T. Yatagai, H. Saito: Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry Using Digital Image Processing Techniques, Appl. Opt. 19, 1879–1883 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    C. Wykes: Use of Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) in the Measurement of Static and Dynamic Surface Displacements, Opt. Eng. 21, 400–406 (1982)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    K. Creath: Phase-Shifting Speckle Interferometry, Appl. Opt. 24, 3053–3058 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    D. W. Robinson, D. C. Williams: Digital Phase-Stepping Speckle Interferometry, Opt. Commun. 57, 26–30 (1986)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    F. M. Santoyo, M. C. Shellabear, J. R. Tyrer: Whole Field In-Plane Vibration Analysis Using Pulsed Phase-Stepped ESPI, Appl. Opt. 30, 717–721 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    K. Creath: Averaging Double-Exposure Speckle Interferograms, Opt. Lett. 10, 582–584 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    R. Höfling, W. Osten: Displacement Measurement by Image-Processed Speckle Patterns, J. Mod. Opt. 34, 607–617 (1987)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Y. Y. Hung: Displacement and Strain Measurement, in R. K. Erf (Ed.): Speckle Metrology, Academic, New York (1978) pp. 51–71Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    R. S. Sirohi: Speckle Methods in Experimental Mechanics, in R. S. Sirohi (Ed.): Speckle Metrology, Dekker, New York (1993) pp. 99–155Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    C. Joenathan, B. Pfister, H. J. Tiziani: Contouring by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry Employing Dual Beam Illumination, Appl. Opt. 29, 1905–1911 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    J. A. Leendertz, J. N. Butters: An Image-Shearing Speckle Pattern Interferometer for Measuring Bending Moments, J. Phys. E. 6, 1107–1110 (1973)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Y. Y. Hung, C. E. Taylor: Speckle-Shearing Interferometric Camera — A Tool for Measurement of Derivatives of Surface Displacements, SPIE Proc. 41, 169–175 (1973)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Y. Y. Hung, C. Y. Liang: Image-Shearing Camera for Direct Measurement of Surface Strains, Appl. Opt. 18, 1046–1051 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Y. Y. Hung, I. M. Daniel, R. E. Rowlands: Full-Field Optical Strain Measurement having Post-Recording Sensitivity and Direction Selectivity, Exp. Mech. 18, 56–60 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    M. Keinan, J. Politch: Second Order Phenomena in Strain Measurement by Speckle Techniques, Opt. Lasers Eng. 15, 149–182 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    O. M. Peterson: Digital Speckle Pattern Shearing Interferometry: Limitations and Prospects, Appl. Opt. 30, 2730–2738 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    D. K. Sharma, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal: Simultaneous Measurement of Slope and Curvature with a Three-Aperture Speckle Shearing Interferometer, Appl. Opt. 23, 1542–1546 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    C. Joenathan, C. S. Narayanmurthy, R. S. Sirohi: Radial and Rotational Slope Contours in Speckle Shear Interferometry, Opt. Commun. 56, 309–312 (1986)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    P. K. Rastogi: An Electronic Pattern Speckle Shearing Interferometer for the Measurement of Surface Slope Variations of Three-Dimensional objects, Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 93–100 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pramod K. Rastogi
    • 1
  1. 1.Stress Analysis LaboratorySwiss Federal Institute of Technology LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations