Advertisement

Hyphenated Techniques in Liquid Chromatography of Polymers

  • Harald Pasch
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 150)

Abstract

Complex polymers are distributed in more than one direction of molecular heterogeneity. In addition to the molar mass distribution, they are frequently distributed with respect to chemical composition, functionality, and molecular architecture. For the characterization of the different types of molecular heterogeneity it is necessary to use a wide range of analytical techniques. Preferably, these techniques should be selective towards a specific type of heterogeneity. The combination of two selective analytical techniques is assumed to yield two-dimensional information on the molecular heterogeneity.

Keywords

Polymer analysis Liquid chromatography Hyphenated techniques Multidimensional chromatography 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Barth HG (1995) Hyphenated polymer separation techniques. Present and future role. In: Provder T, Barth HG, Urban MW (eds) Chromatographic characterization of Polymers. Hyphenated and multidimensional techniques, chap 1. Adv Chem Ser 247, American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Francuskiewicz F (1994) Polymer fractionation. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cortes HJ (1992) J Chromatogr 626:3Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Factor A, Carnahan JC, Dorn SB, van Dort PC (1994) Polym Degrad Stab 45:127Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ezrin M, Lavigne G (1992) Ann Tech Conf Soc Plast Eng 50:1717Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu Y, Chou HC, Stoffer JO (1994) J Appl Polym Sci 53:247Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boinon B, Raihane M, Montheard JP (1994) Polym Degrad Stab 43:27Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jedlinski Z, Kowalczuk M, Kurcok P (1992) J Macromol Sci A29:1223Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Matischek G, Stoffers H, Ohrbach KH, Kettrup A (1993) Polym Degrad Stab 39:381Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bell B, Beyer DE, Maecker NL, Papenfus RR, Priddy DB (1994) J Appl Polym Sci 54:1605Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Farina M, Di Silvestro G, Sozzani P, Yuan CM (1991) Makromol Chem Macromol Symp 47:1Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liebman S, Levy E (1985) Pyrolysis and GC in Polymer analysis. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gei\ler M (1997) Kunststoffe 87:194Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sabo M (1985) Anal Chem 57:1822Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hellgeth JW, Taylor LT (1987) Anal Chem 59:295Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hellgeth JW, Taylor LT (1986) J Chromatogr Sci 24:519Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Griffiths PR, Conroy CM (1986) Adv Chromatogr 25:105Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gagel JJ, Biemann K (1986) Anal Chem 58:2184Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wheeler LM, Willis J (1993) Appl Spectrosc 47:1128Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lindon JC (1996) Progr Nucl Magn Res Spectrosc 29:1Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Albert K (1995) J Chromatogr A703:123Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Balke ST, Patel RD (1983) Adv Chem Ser 203:281Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kilz P (1992) Laborpraxis 6:628Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Balke ST (1991) Characterization of complex Polymers by SEC and HPLC. In: Barth HG, Mays JM (eds)Modern methods in Polymer characterization, chap 1. Wiley Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Podzimek S (1994) J Appl. Polym Sci 54:91Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dayal U, Mehta SK (1994) J Liq Chromatogr 17:303Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dayal D (1994) J Appl Polym Sci 53:1557Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Balke S, Rao B, Thiriratsakul R, Mourey TH, Schunk TC (1996) Prep 9th Int Symp Polym Anal Char (ISPAC 9), OxfordGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Trathnigg B (1990) J Liq Chromatogr 13:1731Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Trathnigg B (1991) J Chromatogr 552:505Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Trathnigg B, Yan X (1992) Chromatographia 33:467Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Runyon JR, Barnes DE, Rudel JF, Tung LH (1969) J Appl Polym Sci 13:2359Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ogawa T (1979) J Appl Polym Sci 23:3515Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Revillon A (1980) J Liq Chromatogr 3:1137Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tung LH (1979) J Appl Polym Sci 24:953Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Trathnigg B, Jorde C (1987) J Chromatogr 385:17Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pasch H, Augenstein M, Trathnigg B (1994) Macromol Chem Phys 195:743Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Trathnigg B, Feichtenhofer S, Kollroser M (1997) J Chromatogr A 786:75Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Johann C, Kilz P (1989) Proc 1st Int Conf Molar Mass Charact, BradfordGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dawkins JV (1995) Compositional heterogeneity of coPolymers by coupled techniques with chromatographic columns and multidetectors. In: Provder T, Barth HG, Urban MW (eds) Chromatographic characterization of Polymers. Hyphenated and multidimensional techniques, chap 15. Adv Chem Ser 247, American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Meehan E, O’Donohue S, McConville JA (1993) Polym Mater Sci Eng 69:269Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gores F, Kilz P (1993) CoPolymer characterization using conventional SEC and molar mass-sensitive detectors. In: Provder T (ed)Chromatography of Polymers, chap 10. ACS Symp Ser 521, American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lee HC, Ree M, Chang T (1995) Polymer 36:2215Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lee HC, Chang T (1996) Bull Korean Chem Soc 17:648Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jackson C, Barth HG (1995) In: Wu CS (ed)Molecular weight sensitive detectors for size exclusion chromatography, chap 4. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kratochvil P (1987) In: Jenkins AD (ed) Classical light scattering from Polymer solutions, Polym Sci Libr 5, Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jeng L, Balke ST, Mourey TH, Wheeler L, Romeo P (1993) J Appl Polm Sci 49:1359Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jeng L, Balke ST (1993) J Appl Polym Sci 49:1375Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pille L, Solomon DH (1994) Macromol Chem Phys 195:2477Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mourey TH, Coll H (1994) Polym Mater Sci Eng 69:217Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mourey TH, Coll H (1995) J Appl Polym Sci 56:65Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Grubisic-Gallot Z, Gallot Y, Sedlacek J (1994) Macromol Chem Phys 195:781Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Grubisic-Gallot Z, Gallot Y, Sedlacek J (1995) J Liq Chromatogr 18:2291Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zigon M, Grubisic-Gallot Z (1998) Proc 11th Int Symp Polym Anal Char, Santa Margerita Ligure, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Yau WW, Abbott SD, Smith GA, Keating MY (1987) In: Provder T (ed)Detection and data analysis in size exclusion chromatography. ACS Symp Ser 352, American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Styring M, Armonas JE, Hamielec AE (1987) In: Provder T (ed)Detection and data analysis in size exclusion chromatography. ACS Symp Ser 352, American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Haney MA, Armonas JE, Rosen L (1987) In: Provder T (ed)Detection and data analysis in size exclusion chromatography. ACS Symp Ser 352, American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brower L, Trowbridge D, Kim D, Mukherjee P, Seeger R, McIntyre D (1987) In: Provder T (ed)Detection and data analysis in size exclusion chromatography. ACS Symp Ser 352, American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mori S (1993) J Chromatogr 637:129Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cheung P, Lew R, Balke ST, Mourey TH (1993) J Appl Polym Sci 47:1701Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lesec J, Millequant M, Havard T (1993) In: Provder T (ed)Chromatography of Polymers. ACS Symp Ser 521, American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Benoit H, Rempp P, Grubisic Z (1967) J Polym Sci B5:753Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kurata M, Tsunashima Y, Iwama, M, Kamada K (1975) In: Brandrup J, Immergut I (eds)Polymer handbook. Wiley, New York, p IV–1Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Glöckner G (1991) Gradient HPLC of coPolymers and chromatographic cross-fractionation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Yau W (1990) Chemtracts-Macromol Chem 1:1Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sanayei RA, Suddaby KG, Rudin A (1993) Makromol Chem 194:1953Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Puskas JE, Hutchinson R (1993) Rubber Chem Technol 66:742Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Xie J (1994) Polymer 35:2385Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lew R, Suwanda D, Balke ST, Mourey TH (1993) J Appl Polym Sci Appl Polym Symp 52:125Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Harrison CA, Mourey TH (1995) J Appl Polym Sci 56:211Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chiantore O, Lazzari M, Caldari S, Zecchi E (1998) Proc 11th Int Symp Polym Anal Char, Santa Margerita Ligure, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Goldwasser JM (1989) Proc Int GPC Symp, Newton, MAGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pang S, Rudin A (1992) Polymer 33:1949Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wintermantel M, Antonietti M, Schmidt M (1993) J Appl Polym Sci Appl Polym Symp 52:91Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Degoulet C, Nicolai T, Durand D, Busnel JP (1995) Macromolecules 28:6819Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jackson C, Chen YJ, Mays JW (1996) J Appl Polym Sci 61:865Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Yau WW, Arora KS (1994) Polym Mater Sci Eng 69:210Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Yau WW (1991) J Appl Polym Sci, Appl Polym Symp 48:85Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Köhler W, Kühn A, Motsch A (1993) Acta Polym 44:238Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lehmann U, Köhler W, Albrecht W (1996) Macromolecules 29:3212Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jackson C, Barth HG (1994) Trends Polym Sci 2:203Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Balke ST, Patel RD (1980) J Polym Sci B Polym Lett 18:453Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Balke ST (1982) Sep Purif Methods 1:1Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Balke ST, Patel RD (1983) Orthogonal chromatography. Polymer cross-fractionation by coupled gel permeation chromatographs. In: Craver CD (ed)Polymer characterization. Adv Chem Ser 203, American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Glöckner G, van den Berg JHM, Meijerink N, Scholte TG (1986) In: Kleintjens L, Lemstra P (eds)Integration of fundamental Polymer science and technology. Elsevier Applied Science Publ., BarkingGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Glöckner G, Stickler M, Wunderlich W (1989) J Appl Polym Sci 37:3147Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Augenstein M, Stickler M (1990) Makromol Chem 191:415Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Mori S (1990) J Chromatogr 503:411Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mori S (1988) Anal Chem 60:1125Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mori S (1981) Anal Chem 53:1813Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kilz P (1993) Labor Praxis 6:64Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kilz P, Krüger RP, Much H, Schulz G (1995) ACS Adv Chem 247:223Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kilz P, Krüger RP, Much H, Schulz G (1993) PMSE Preprints 69:114Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Murphy RE, Schure MR, Foley JP (1998) Anal Chem 70:1585Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Trathnigg B, Maier B, Yan X (1994) Proc 7th Int Symp Polym Anal Char, Les Diablerets, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Entelis SG, Evreinov VV, Gorshkov AV (1986) Adv Polym Sci 76:129Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Entelis SG, Evreinov VV, Kuzaev AI (1985) Reactive oligomers. Khimiya, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Tennikov MB, Nefedov PP, Lazareva MA, Frenkel SJ (1977) Vysokomol Soedin A19:657Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Belenkii BG, Gankina ES, Tennikov MB, Vilenchik LZ (1976) Dokl Acad Nauk USSR 231:1147Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Skvortsov AM, Belenkii BG, Gankina ES, Tennikov MB (1978) Vysokomol Soedin A20:678Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Pasch H, Much H, Schulz G, Gorshkov AV (1992) LC-GC Int 5:38Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Pasch H, Much H, Schulz G (1993) In: Trends in Polymer science 3, Research trends. Trivandrum, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Pasch H (1997) Adv Polym Sci 128:1Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Filatova NN, Gorshkov AV, Evreinov VV, Entelis SG (1988) Vysokomol Soedin A30:953Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gorshkov AV, Verenich SS, Evreinov VV, Entelis SG (1988) Chromatographia 26:338Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Gorshkov AV, Prudskova TN, Guryakova VV, Evreinov VV (1986) Polym Bull 15:465Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Gorshkov AV, Much H, Becker H, Pasch H, Evreinov VV, Entelis SG (1990) J Chromatogr 523:91Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Pasch H, Zammert I (1994) J Liq Chromatogr 17:3091Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Pasch H, Brinkmann C, Much H, Just U (1992) J Chromatogr 623:315Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Pasch H, Brinkmann C, Gallot Y (1993) Polymer 34:4099Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Pasch H, Augenstein M (1993) Makromol Chem 194:2533Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Pasch H, Augenstein M, Trathnigg B (1994) Makromol Chem 195:743Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Pasch H, Gallot Y, Trathnigg B (1993) Polymer 34:4986Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Pasch H (1993) GIT Fachz Lab 37:1068Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Pasch H, Deffieux A, Henze I, Schappacher M, Rique-Lurbet L (1996) Macromolecules 29:8776Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Pasch H (1993) Polymer 34:4095Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Pasch H, Rode K (1996) Macromol Chem Phys 197:2691Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Pasch H, Rode K, Chaumien N (1996) Polymer 37:4079Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Adrian J, Braun D, Pasch H (1998) LC-GC Int 11:32Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Murphy RE, Schure MR, Mink LP, Foley JP (1995) Proc Int Symp Polym Anal Char, A7, Sanibel Island, FLGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Krüger RP, Much H, Schulz G (1996) Int J Polym Anal Char 2:221Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Pasch H, Trathnigg B (1997) HPLC of Polymers. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Pasch H (1997) Proc 11th Int Symp Polym Anal Char, Toronto, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Suortti T (1997) J Chromatogr A763:331Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Ross JH, Shank RL (1971) Polym Prepr 12:812Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Vidrine DW, Mattson DR (1978) Appl Spectrosc 32:502Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Vidrine DW (1979) J Chromatogr Sci 17:477Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Brown RS, Hausler DW, Taylor LT, Carter BC (1981) Anal Chem 53:197Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Wang CP, Sparks DT, Williams SS, Isenhour TL (1984) Anal Chem 56:1268Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Johnson CC, Taylor LT (1984) Anal Chem 56:2642Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sabo M (1985) Anal Chem 57:1822Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Hellgeth JW, Taylor LT (1987) Anal Chem 59:295Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Robertson RM, de Haseth JA, Kirk JD, Browner RF (1988) Appl Spectrosc 42:1365Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Griffiths PR, Conroy CM (1986) Adv Chromatogr 25:105Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Hellgeth JW, Taylor LT (1986) J Chromatogr Sci 24:519Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Gagel JJ, Biemann K (1986) Anal Chem 58:2184Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Gagel JJ, Biemann K (1987) Anal Chem 59:1266Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Gagel JJ, Biemann K (1988) Microchim Acta 11:185Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Wheeler LM, Willis JN (1993) Appl Spectrosc 47:1128Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Willis JN, Dwyer JL, Wheeler LM (1993) Polym Mat Sci 69:120Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Willis JN, Dwyer JL, Lui MX (1995) Proc Int GPC Symp 1994, Lake Buena Vista,FLGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Pasch H, Esser E, Montag P (1996) GIT Fachz Lab Chromatogr 16:68Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Willis JN, Wheeler L (1995) Use of a GPC-FTIR interface for Polymer analysis. In: Provder T, Barth HG, Urban MW (eds)Chromatographic characterization of Polymers. Hyphenated and multidimensional techniques, chap 19. Adv Chem Ser 247, American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Provder T, Kuo C, Whited M, Huddleston D (1995) Proc Int GPC Symp 1994, Lake Buena Vista, FLGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Cheung PC, Balke ST, Schunk TC (1995) SEC-FTIR using a solvent-evaporative interface. In: Provder T, Barth HG, Urban MW (eds)Chromatographic characterization of Polymers. Hyphenated and multidimensional techniques, chap 20. Adv Chem Ser 247, American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Cheung P, Balke ST, Schunk TC, Mourey TH (1993) J Appl Polym Sci Appl Polym Symp 52:105Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Balogh MP (1997) LC-GC Int 10:728Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Smits R (1995) LC-GC Int 8:92Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Niessen WMA, Tinke AP (1995) J Chromatogr A703:37Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Dole M (1968) J Chem Phys 49:2240Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Horning EC (1974) J Chromat Sci 12:725Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Vestal ML, Ferguson GJ (1985) Anal Chem 57:2373Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Willoughby RC, Browner RF (1984) Anal Chem 56:2626Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Vouros P, Wronka JW (1991) In: Barth HG, Mays JW (eds) Modern methods in Polymer characterization, chap 12. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Vestal ML (1984) Science 226:595Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Vargo JD, Olson KL (1985) Anal Chem 57:672Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Vestal ML (1983) Mass Spectrom Rev 2:447Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Vargo JD, Olson KL (1986) J Chromatogr 353:215Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Leyen DV, Hagenhoff B (1989) J Vac Sci Technol A7:1790Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Bletsos IV, Hercules DM (1991) Anal Chem 63:1953Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Lattimer RP, Schulten HR (1985) Int J Mass Spectrom Ion Phys 67:227Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Rollins K, Scrivens JH, Taylor MJ, Major H (1990) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 4:355Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Fenn JB, Nohmi TJ (1992) J Am Chem Soc 114:3241Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Kallos GJ, Tomalia DA (1991) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 5:383Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Prokai L, Simonsick WJ (1995) SEC with electrospray mass spectrometric detection. In: Provder T, Barth HG, Urban MW (eds)Chromatographic characterization of Polymers. Hyphenated and multidimensional techniques, chap 4. Adv Chem Ser. 247, American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Prokai L, Simonsick WJ (1993) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 7:853Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Simonsick WJ (1993) Polym Mater Sci Eng 69:412Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Simonsick WJ, Ross CW (1996) Polym Prepr 37:286Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Prokai L, Myung SW, Simonsick WJ (1996) Polym Prepr 37:288Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Kemp TJ, Barton Z, Mahon A (1996) Polym Prepr 37:305Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Karas M, Hillenkamp F (1988) Anal Chem 60:2299Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Beavis RC, Chait BT (1989) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 3:233Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Hillenkamp F, Karas M, Beavis RC, Chait BT (1991) Anal Chem 63:1193AGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Bahr U, Deppe A, Karas M, Hillenkamp F, Giessmann U (1992) Anal Chem 64:2866Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Danis PO, Karr DE, Mayer F, Holle A, Watson CH (1992) Org Mass Spectrom 27:843Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Kahr MS, Wilkins CL (1993) J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 4:453Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Montaudo G, Montaudo MS, Puglisi C, Samperi F (1994) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 8:1011Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Danis PO, Karr DE, Xiong Y, Owens KG (1996) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 10:862Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Pasch H, Unvericht R (1993) Angew Makromol Chem 212:191Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Pasch, H, Gores F (1995) Polymer 36:1999Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Braun D, Ghahary R, Pasch H (1996) Polymer 37:777Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Pasch H, Deffieux A, Ghahary R, Schapacher M, Riquet-Lurbet L (1997) Macromolecules 30:98Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Pasch H, Rode K (1995) J Chromatogr A699:21Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Krüger RP, Much H, Schulz G (1996) GIT Fachz Lab 4:398Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Just U, Krüger RP (1996) In: Auner N, Weis J (eds)Organosilicon chemistry II, VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Montaudo G (1995) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 9:1158Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Danis PO, Saucy DA, Huby FJ (1996) Polym Prepr 37:311Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Montaudo G (1998) Proc 11th Int Symp Polym Anal Char, Santa Margerita Ligure, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Murray KK, Russell DH (1993) Anal Chem 65:2534Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Murray KK, Russell DH (1994) J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 5:1Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Fei X, Murray KK (1996) Anal Chem 68:3560Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Albert K (1995) J Chromatogr 703:123Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Dorn HC (1984) Anal Chem 56:747 AGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Laude DA, Wilkins CL (1986) Trends Anal Chem 5:230Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Albert K, Bayer E (1988) Trends Anal Chem 7:288Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Albert K, Bayer E (1992) In: Patonay G (ed)HPLC detection: newer methods, VCH, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Hofmann M, Spraul M, Streck R, Wilson ID, Rapp A (1993) Labor Praxis 10:36Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Smallcombe HS, Pratt LP, Keifer PA (1995) J Magn Reson A117:295Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Ogg RJ, Kingsley PB, Taylor JS (1994) J Magn Reson B104:1Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Albert K, Braumann U (1994) Anal Chem 66:3042Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Albert K, Braumann U, Streck R, Spraul M, Ecker R (1995) Fresenius J Anal Chem 352:521Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Albert K (1997) J Chromatogr A785:65Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Braumann U, Händel H, Albert R (1995) Anal Chem 67:930Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Wu N, Peck TL, Webb AG, Magin RL, Sweedler JV (1994) J Am Chem Soc 116:7929Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Wu N, Peck TL, Webb AG, Magin RL, Sweedler JV (1994) Anal Chem 22:3849Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Sweedler JV (1995) Proc 7th Int Symp High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis, Würzburg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Hatada K, Ute K, Okamoto Y, Imanari M, Fujii N (1988) Polym Bull 20:317Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Hatada K, Ute K, Kashiyama M, Imanari M (1990) Polym J 22:218Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Ute K (1998) Proc 11th Int Symp Polym Anal Char, Santa Margerita Ligure, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Pasch H, Hiller W (1996) Macromolecules 29:6556Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Schlotterbeck G, Pasch H, Albert K (1997) Polym Bull 38:673Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Pasch H, Hiller W, Haner R (1998) 39:1515Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harald Pasch
    • 1
  1. 1.Deutsches Kunststoff-InstitutDarmstadtGermany

Personalised recommendations