Pictorial and Verbal Tools for Conveying Routes

  • Barbara Tversky
  • Paul U. Lee
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1661)


Traditionally, depictions and descriptions have been seen as complementary; depictions have been preferred to convey iconic or metaphorically iconic information whereas descriptions have been preferred for abstract information. Both are external representations designed to complement human memory and information processing. We have found the same underlying structure and semantics for route maps and route directions. Here we find that limited schematic map and direction toolkits are sufficient for constructing directions, supporting the possibility of automatic translation between them.


diagrams directions external representation map route 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara Tversky
    • 1
  • Paul U. Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyStanford UniversityUSA

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