Genetic Code Degeneracy: Implications for Grammatical Evolution and Beyond

  • Michael O’Neill
  • Conor Ryan
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1674)


Grammatical Evolution (GE) is a grammar-based GA which generates computer programs. GE has the distinction that its input is a BNF, which permits it to generate programs in any language, of arbitrary complexity. Part of the power of GE is that it is closer to natural DNA than other Evolutionary Algorithms, and thus can benefit from natural phenomena such as a separation of search and solution spaces through a genotype to phenotype mapping, and a genetic code degeneracy which can give rise to silent mutations that have no effect on the phenotype. It has previously been shown how runs of GE are competitive with GP, and in this paper we analyse the feature of genetic code degeneracy, and its implications for genotypic diversity. Results show that genetic diversity is improved as a result of degeneracy in the genetic code for the problem domains addressed here.


Genetic Program Genotypic Diversity Genetic Code Problem Domain Production Rule 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael O’Neill
    • 1
  • Conor Ryan
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Computer Science and Information SystemsUniversity of LimerickIreland

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