Advertisement

One-Way Accumulators: A Decentralized Alternative to Digital Signatures

Extended Abstract
  • Josh Benaloh
  • Michael de Mare
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 765)

Abstract

This paper describes a simple candidate one-way hash function which satisfies a quasi-commutative property that allows it to be used as an accumulator. This property allows protocols to be developed in which the need for a trusted central authority can be eliminated. Space-efficient distributed protocols are given for document time stamping and for membership testing, and many other applications are possible.

Keywords

Hash Function Time Stamp Central Authority Modular Exponentiation Membership List 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. [Beav91]
    Beaver, D. “Efficient Multiparty Protocols Using Circuit Randomization.” Advances in Cryptology — Crypto’ 91, ed. by J. Feigenbaum in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 576, ed. by G. Goos and J. Hartmanis. Springer-Verlag, New York (1992), 420–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [Beav89]
    Beaver, D. “Multiparty Protocols Tolerating Half Faulty Processors.” Advances in Cryptology — Crypto’ 89, ed. by G. Brassard in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 435, ed. by G. Goos and J. Hartmanis. Springer-Verlag, New York (1990), 560–572.Google Scholar
  3. [BeGo89]
    Beaver, D. and Goldwasser, S. “Multiparty Computation with Faulty Majority.” Proc. 30thIEEE Symp. on Foundations of Computer Science, Research Triangle Park, NC (Oct.–Nov. 1989), 468–473.Google Scholar
  4. [BeMa91]
    Benaloh, J. and de Mare, M. “Efficient Broadcast Time-Stamping.” Clarkson University Department of Mathematics and Computer Science TR 91-1. (Aug. 1991).Google Scholar
  5. [BenO83]
    Ben-Or, M. “Another Advantage of Free Choice: Completely Asynchronous Agreement Protocols.” Proc. 2ndACM Symp. on Principles of Distributed Computing, Montreal, PQ (Aug. 1983), 27–30.Google Scholar
  6. [BGW88]
    Ben-Or, M., Goldwasser, S., and Wigderson, A. “Completeness Theorems for Non-Cryptographic Fault-Tolerant Distributed Computation.” Proc. 20stACM Symp. on Theory of Computation, Chicago, IL (May 1988), 1–10.Google Scholar
  7. [Brui51]
    de Bruijn, N. “The Asymptotic Behaviour of a Function Occurring in the Theory of Primes.” Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society 15. (1951), 25–32.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. [CCD88]
    Chaum, D., Crépeau, C., and Damgård, I. “Multiparty Unconditionally Secure Protocols.” Proc. 20stACM Symp. on Theory of Computation, Chicago, IL (May 1988), 11–19.Google Scholar
  9. [CGMA85]
    Chor, B., Goldwasser, S., Micali, S., and Awerbuch, B. “Verifiable Secret Sharing and Achieving Simultaneity in the Presence of Faults.” Proc. 26thIEEE Symp. on Foundations of Computer Science, Portland, OR (Oct. 1985), 383–395.Google Scholar
  10. [Denn82]
    Denning, D. Cryptography and Data Security, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts (1982).zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. [Fisc83]
    Fischer, M. “The Consensus Problem in Unreliable Distributed Systems”, Proc. 1983 International FCT-Conference, Borgholm, Sweeden (Aug. 1983), 127–140. Published as Foundations of Computation Theory, ed. by M. Karpinski in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 158, ed. by G. Goos and J. Hartmanis. Springer-Verlag, New York (1983).Google Scholar
  12. [GMW86]
    Goldreich, O., Micali, S., and Wigderson, A “Proofs that Yield Nothing but Their Validity and a Methodology of Cryptographic Protocol Design.” Proc. 27thIEEE Symp. on Foundations of Computer Science, Toronto, ON (Oct. 1986), 174–187.Google Scholar
  13. [GMW87]
    Goldreich, O., Micali, S., and Wigderson, A “How to Play Any Mental Game or A Completeness Theorem for Protocols with Honest Majority.” Proc. 19stACM Symp. on Theory of Computation, New York, NY (May 1987), 218–229.Google Scholar
  14. [GoLe90]
    Goldwasser, S. and Levin, L. “Fair Computation of General Functions in Presence of Immoral Majority.” Advances in Cryptology — Crypto’ 90, ed. by A. Menezes and S. Vanstone in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 537, ed. by G. Goos and J. Hartmanis. Springer-Verlag, New York (1991), 77–93.Google Scholar
  15. [HaSt90]
    Haber, S. and Stornetta, W. “How to Time-Stamp a Digital Document.” Journal of Cryptology 3. (1991), 99–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [KnTr76]
    Knuth, D. and Trabb Pardo, L. “Analysis of a Simple Factorization Algorithm.” Theoretical Computer Science 3. (1976), 321–348.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  17. [ILL89]
    Impagliazzo, R., Levin, L., and Luby, M. “Pseudorandom Generation from One-Way Functions.” Proc. 21stACM Symp. on Theory of Computation, Seattle, WA (May 1989), 12–24.Google Scholar
  18. [LuWa69]
    van de Lune, J. and Wattel, E. “On the Numerical Solution of a Differential-Difference Equation Arising in Analytic Number Theory.” Mathematics of Computation 23. (1969), 417–421.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  19. [Merk80]
    Merkle, R. “Protocols for Public Key Cryptosystems.” Proc. 1980 Symp. on Security and Privacy, IEEE Computer Society (April 1980), 122–133.Google Scholar
  20. [MiRa90]
    Micali, T. and Rabin, T. “Collective Coin Tossing Without Assumptions nor Broadcasting.” Advances in Cryptology — Crypto’ 90, ed. by A. Menezes and S. Vanstone in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 537, ed. by G. Goos and J. Hartmanis. Springer-Verlag, New York (1991), 253–266.Google Scholar
  21. [Mitc68]
    Mitchell, W. “An Evaluation of Golomb’s Constant.” Mathematics of Computation 22. (1968), 411–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [NaYu89]
    Naor, M. and Yung, M. “Universal One-Way Hash Functions and their Cryptographic Applications.” Proc. 21stACM Symp. on Theory of Computation, Seattle, WA (May 1989), 33–43.Google Scholar
  23. [RaBe89]
    Rabin, T. and Ben-Or, M. “Verifiable Secret Sharing and Multiparty Protocols with Honest Majority.” Proc. 21stACM Symp. on Theory of Computation, Seattle, WA (May 1989), 73–85.Google Scholar
  24. [Rabi83]
    Rabin, M. “Randomized Byzantine Generals.” Proc. 24thIEEE Symp. on Foundations of Computer Science, Tucson, AZ (Nov. 1983), 403–409.Google Scholar
  25. [Romp90]
    Rompel, J. “One-Way Functions are Necessary and Sufficient for Secure Signatures.” Proc. 22ndACM Symp. on Theory of Computation, Baltimore, MD (May 1990).Google Scholar
  26. [RSA78]
    Rivest, R., Shamir, A., and Adleman, L. “A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-key Cryptosystems.” Comm. ACM 21,2 (Feb. 1978), 120–126.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  27. [Sham81]
    Shamir, A. “On the Generation of Cryptographically Strong Pseudo-Random Sequences.” Proc. ICALP, (1981).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josh Benaloh
    • 1
  • Michael de Mare
    • 2
  1. 1.Clarkson UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Giordano AutomationUSA

Personalised recommendations