# Provably Secure and Practical Identification Schemes and Corresponding Signature Schemes

- First Online:

DOI: 10.1007/3-540-48071-4_3

- Cite this paper as:
- Okamoto T. (1993) Provably Secure and Practical Identification Schemes and Corresponding Signature Schemes. In: Brickell E.F. (eds) Advances in Cryptology — CRYPTO’ 92. CRYPTO 1992. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 740. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

## Abstract

This paper presents a three-move interactive identification scheme and proves it to be as secure as the discrete logarithm problem. This provably secure scheme is almost as efficient as the Schnorr identification scheme, while the Schnorr scheme is not provably secure. This paper also presents another practical identification scheme which is proven to be as secure as the factoring problem and is almost as efficient as the Guillou-Quisquater identification scheme: the Guillou-Quisquater scheme is not provably secure. We also propose practical digital signature schemes based on these identification schemes. The signature schemes are almost as efficient as the Schnorr and Guillou-Quisquater signature schemes, while the security assumptions of our signature schemes are weaker than those of the Schnorr and Guillou-Quisquater. signature schemes. This paper also gives a theoretically generalized result: a three-move identification scheme can be constructed which is as secure as the random-self-reducible problem. Moreover, this paper proposes a variant which is proven to be as secure as the difficulty of solving both the discrete logarithm problem and the specific factoring problem simultaneously. Some other variants such as an identity-based variant and an elliptic curve variant are also proposed.