Combining Specification Techniques for Processes, Data and Time

  • Jochen Hoenicke
  • Ernst-Rüdiger Olderog
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2335)

Abstract

We present a new combination CSP-OZ-DC of three well researched formal techniques for the specification of processes, data and time: CSP [18], Object-Z [37], and Duration Calculus [40]. The emphasis is on a smooth integration of the underlying semantic models and its use for verifying properties of CSP-OZ-DC specifications by a combined application of the model-checkers FDR [29] for CSP and UPPAAL [1] for Timed Automata. This approach is applied to part of a case study on radio controlled railway crossings.

Keywords

CSP Object-Z Duration Calculus transformational semantic real-time processes model-checking FDR UPPAAL 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J. Bengtsson, K.G. Larsen, F. Larsson, P. Pettersson, and Wang Yi. Uppaal-a tool suite for automatic verification of real-time systems. In R. Alur, T.A. Henzinger, and E.D. Sonntag, editors, Hybrid Systems III-Verification and Control, volume 1066 of LNCS, pages 232–243. Springer, 1997.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Booch, J. Rumbaugh, and I. Jacobson. The Unified Modeling Language User Guide. Object Technology Series. Addison Wesley, 1999.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Davies and S. Schneider. A brief history of Timed CSP. Theoretical Computer Science, 138:243–271, 1995.MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Dierks, A. Fehnker, A. Mader, and F.W. Vaandrager. Operational and Logical Semantics for Polling Real-Time Systems. In A.P. Ravn and H. Rischel, editors, FTRTFT’98, volume 1486 of LNCS, pages 29–40. Springer, 1998.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Dierks and J. Tapken. Modelling and verifying of a ‘cash point service’ using MOBY/PLC. Formal Aspects of Computing, 12:220–221, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Dierks. PLC-Automata: A New Class of Implementable Real-Time Automata. Theoretical Computer Science, 253(1):61–93, 2001.MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.J. Fidge, I.J. Hayes, A.P. Martin, and A.K. Wabenhorst. A set-theoretic model for real-time specification and reasoning. In J. Jeuring, editor, Mathematics of Program Construction, volume 1422 of LNCS, pages 188–206. Springer, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Fischer and H. Wehrheim. Model-checking CSP-OZ specifications with FDR. In K. Araki, A. Galloway, and K. Taguchi, editors, Integrated Formal Methods, pages 315–334. Springer, 1999.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. Fischer. CSP-OZ: A combination of Object-Z and CSP. In H. Bowman and J. Derrick, editors, Formal Methods for Open Object-Based Distributed Systems (FMOODS’97), volume 2, pages 423–438. Chapman & Hall, 1997.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Fischer. Combination and Implementation of Processes and Data: From CSP-OZ to Java. PhD thesis, Bericht Nr. 2/2000, University of Oldenburg, April 2000.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Formal Systems (Europe) Ltd. Failures-Divergence Refinement: FDR 2, Dec. 1995.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.R. Hansen and C. Zhou. Duration calculus: Logical foundations. Formal Aspects of Computing, 9:283–330, 1997.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Heilmann. Proof Support for Duration Calculus. PhD thesis, Dept. Inform. Technology, Tech. Univ. Denmark, June 1999. Tech. Report IT-TR: 1999-030.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Hennessy. Algebraic Theory of Processes. MIT Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. He, C.A.R. Hoare, M. Fränzle, M. Müller-Olm, E.-R. Olderog, M. Schenke, M.R. Hansen, A.P. Ravn, and H. Rischel. Provably correct systems. In H. Langmaack, W.-P. de Roever, and J. Vytopil, editors, Formal Techniques in Real-Time and Fault Tolerant Systems, volume 863 of LNCS, pages 288–335. Springer, 1994.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    C.A.R. Hoare and J. He. Unifying Theories of Programming. Prentice Hall, 1997.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    C.A.R. Hoare. Communicating sequential processes. CACM, 21:666–677, 1978.MATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C.A.R. Hoare. Communicating Sequential Processes. Prentice Hall, 1985.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kolyang. HOL-Z — An Integrated Formal Support Environment for Z in Isabelle /HOL. PhD thesis, Univ. Bremen, 1997. Shaker Verlag, Aachen, 1999.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    D.G. Luenberger. Introduction to Dynamic Systems. Theory, Models & Applications. Wiley, 1979.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    B.P. Mahony and J.S. Dong. Blending Object-Z and Timed CSP: an introduction to TCOZ. In K. Futatsugi, R. Kemmerer, and K. Torii, editors, The 20th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE’98), pages 95–104. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    B.P. Mahony and J.S. Dong. Sensors and actuators in TCOZ. In J.M. Wing, J. Woodcock, and J. Davies, editors, FM’99 — Formal Methods, volume 1709 of LNCS, pages 1166–1185. Springer, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    B. Moszkowski. A temporal logic for multi-level reasoning about hardware. IEEE Computer, 18(2):10–19, 1985.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    B. Moszkowski. Executing Temporal Logic Programs. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. De Nicola and M. Hennessy. Testing equivalences of processes. Theoretical Computer Science, 34:83–133, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    E.-R. Olderog, A. P. Ravn, and J. U. Skakkebæk. Refining system requirements to program specifications. In C. Heitmeyer and D. Mandrioli, editors, Formal Methods for Real-Time Computing, pages 107–134. Wiley, 1996.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    A.P. Ravn, H. Rischel, and K.M. Hansen. Specifying and verifying requirements of real-time systems. IEEE Trans. Software Engineering, 19(1):41–55, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A.P. Ravn. Design of embedded real-time computing systems. Technical Report ID-TR: 1995-170, Tech. Univ. Denmark, 1995. Thesis for Doctor of Technics.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    A.W. Roscoe. Model-checking CSP. In A.W. Roscoe, editor, A Classical Mind — Essays in Honour of C.A.R.Hoare, pages 353–378. Prentice-Hall, 1994.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A.W. Roscoe. The Theory and Practice of Concurrency. Prentice-Hall, 1997.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. Saaltink. The Z/EVES system. In J. Bowen, M. Hinchey, and D. Till, editors, ZUM’97, volume 1212 of LNCS, pages 72–88. Springer, 1997.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. Santen. A Mechanized Logical Model of Z and Object-Oriented Specification. PhD thesis, Tech. Univ. Berlin, Juli 1999. Shaker Verlag, Aachen, 2000.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. Schenke and E.-R. Olderog. Transformational design of real-time systems — Part 1: from requirements to program specifications. Acta Inform., 36:1–65, 1999.MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    B. Selic and J. Rumbaugh. Using UML for modeling complex real-time systems. Technical report, ObjecTime, 1998.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    J.U. Skakkebaek. A Verification Assistent for a Real-Time Logic. PhD thesis, Dept. Sci., Tech. Univ. Denmark, Nov. 1994. Tech. Report ID-TR: 1994-150.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    G. Smith and I. Hayes. Towards real-time Object-Z. In K. Araki, A. Galloway, and K. Taguchi, editors, Integrated Formal Methods, pages 49–65. Springer, 1999.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    G. Smith. The Object-Z Specification Language. Kluwer Academic Publisher, 2000.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    J.M. Spivey. The Z Notation: A Reference Manual. Prentice-Hall International Series in Computer Science, 2nd edition, 1992.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Woodcock and J. Davies. Using Z — Specification, Refinement, and Proof. Prentice-Hall, 1996.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    C. Zhou, C.A.R. Hoare, and A.P. Ravn. A calculus of durations. Information Processing Letters, 40(5):269–276, 1991.MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jochen Hoenicke
    • 1
  • Ernst-Rüdiger Olderog
    • 1
  1. 1.Fachbereich InformatikUniversität OldenburgOldenburgGermany

Personalised recommendations