How To Prove Yourself: Practical Solutions to Identification and Signature Problems

  • Amos Fiat
  • Adi Shamir
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 263)


In this paper we describe simple identification and signature schemes which enable any user to prove his identity and the authenticity of his messages to any other user without shared or public keys. The schemes are provably secure against any known or chosen message attack if factoring is difficult, and typical implementations require only 1% to 4% of the number of modular multiplications required by the RSA scheme. Due to their simplicity, security and speed, these schemes are ideally suited for microprocessor-based devices such as smart cards, personal computers, and remote control systems.


Credit Card Smart Card Signature Scheme Authentication Scheme Security Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

6. Bibliography

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    Goldreich, Goldwasser and Micali [1984]: How to Construct Random Functions, 25th Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, October 1984.Google Scholar
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    Goldreich, Micali and Wigderson [1986]: Proofs that Yield Nothing But the Validity of the Assertion and the Methodology of Cryptographic Protocol Design, submitted to 27th Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, November 1986.Google Scholar
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    Goldwasser, Micali and Rackoff [1985]: The Knowledge Complexity of Interactive Proof Systems, 17th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computation, May 1985.Google Scholar
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    Shamir [1984]: Identity-Based Cryptosystems and Signature Schemes, Proceedings of Crypto’ 84, Lecture Notes in Computer Science no. 196, Springer Verlag 1985.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amos Fiat
    • 1
  • Adi Shamir
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied MathematicsThe Weizmann Institute of ScienceRehovotIsrael

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