Advertisement

KSPC (Keystrokes per Character) as a Characteristic of Text Entry Techniques

  • I. Scott MacKenzie
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2411)

Abstract

KSPC is the number of keystrokes, on average, to generate each character of text in a given language using a given text entry technique. We systematically describe the calculation of KSPC and provide examples across a variety of text entry techniques. Values for English range from about 10 for methods using only cursor keys and a select key to about 0.5 for word prediction techniques. It is demonstrated that KSPC is useful for a priori analyses, thereby supporting the characterisation and comparison of text entry methods before labour-intensive implementations and evaluations.

Keywords

Candidate List Space Character Text Entry Word Stem Virtual Keyboard 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bellman, T., and MacKenzie, I. S. A probabilistic character layout strategy for mobile text entry, Proc. Graphics Interface’ 98. Toronto: Canadian Information Processing Society (1998) 168–176.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Card, S. K., Moran, T. P., and Newell, A. The psychology of human-computer interaction, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum (1983).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Francis, W. N., and Kucera, H. Standard sample of present-day American English, Providence, RI: Brown University (1964).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grinter, R. E., and Eldridge, M. A. Y do tngrs luv 2 txt msg? Proc. ECSCW 2001. Amsterdam: Kluwer Academic Press (2001) 219–238.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kaindl, H. Methods and modeling: Fiction or useful reality? Extended Abstracts CHI 2001. New York: ACM (2001) 213–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Keele, S. W., and Posner, M. I. Processing of visual feedback in rapid movements, J. Exp. Psyc. 77(1968)155–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    MacKenzie, I. S., Kober, H., Smith, D., Jones, T., and Skepner, E. LetterWise: Prefix-based disambiguation for mobile text input, Proc. UIST 2001. New York: ACM (2001) 111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rau, H., and Skiena, S. S. Dialing for documents: An experiment in information theory, Proc. UIST’ 94. New York: ACM (1994) 147–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Silfverberg, M., MacKenzie, I. S., and Korhonen, P. Predicting text entry speed on mobile phones, Proc. CHI 2000. New York: ACM (2000) 9–16.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Soukoreff, W., and MacKenzie, I. S. Theoretical upper and lower bounds on typing speeds using a stylus and soft keyboard, Behaviour & Information Technology 14 (1995) 370–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Welford, A. T. Fundamentals of skill, London: Methuen, 1968.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhai, S., Hunter, M., and Smith, B. A. The Metropolis keyboard: An exploration of quantitative techniques for graphical keyboard design, Proc. UIST 2000. New York: ACM (2000) 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Scott MacKenzie
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Computer ScienceYork UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations