Alpha-Beta Search Revisited

  • Paul Parkins
  • John A. Keane
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2412)


An algorithm, Aspiration Scout/MTD(f), is derived from an analysis of alpha-beta (α-β) tree search. When compared to its predecessors, it results in an average 10.1% reduction in search effort with a best case of 17.4%. 1 The search space is usually referred to as a tree, however in games such as chess and draughts it is actually a directed acyclic graph (DAG). Programs search a dynamically unfolding DAG.


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  1. 1.
    Eppstein, D.: Strategy and Board Game Programming Lecture Notes, 1997 http://www.ics.uci/~eppstein/180a/s97.html.
  2. 2.
    Plaat, A., et al: Exploiting Graph Properties of Game Trees, AAAI, 1996.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schaeffer, J.: The History Heuristic and Alpha-Beta Enhancements in Practice, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 11, 1989.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schaeffer, J., Plaat, A.: New Advances in Alpha-Beta Searching, Proceedings of the 24th ACM Computer Science Conference, 1996.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Parkins
    • 1
  • John A. Keane
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ComputationUMISTManchesterUK

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