Applying SAT Methods in Unbounded Symbolic Model Checking

  • Ken L. McMillan
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2404)


A method of symbolic model checking is introduced that uses conjunctive normal form (CNF) rather than binary decision diagrams (BDD’s) and uses a SAT-based approach to quantifier elimination. This method is compared to a traditional BDD-based model checking approach using a set of benchmark problems derived from the compositional verification of a commercial microprocessor design.


Model Check Conjunctive Normal Form Boolean Formula Binary Decision Diagram Satisfying Assignment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    P. A. Abdulla, P. Bjesse, and N. Een. Symbolic reachability analysis based on SAT-solvers. In TACAS 2000, volume 1785 of LNCS. Springer-Verlag, 2000.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Biere, A. Cimatti, E. M. Clarke, and Y. Zhu. Symbolic model checking without BDDs. In TACAS 1999, pages 193–207, 1999.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Bjesse. Symbolic model checking with sets of states represented as formulas. Technical Report CS-1999-100, Department of Computer Science, Chalmers technical university, March 1999.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. E. Bryant. Graph-based algorithms for boolean function manipulation. IEEE Transactions on Computers, C-35(8), 1986.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. R. Burch, E. M. Clarke, and D. E. Long. Symbolic model checking with partitioned transition relations. In A. Halaas and P. B. Denyer, editors, VLSI’ 91, Edinburgh, Scotland, August 1991.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. R. Burch, E. M. Clarke, K. L. McMillan, D. L. Dill, and J. Hwang. Symbolic model checking: 10 states and beyond. In Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium on Logic in Computer Science, June 1990.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    O. C., C. Berthet, and J.-C. Madre. Verification of synchronous sequential machines based on symbolic execution. In Joseph Sifakis, editor, Automatic Verification Methods for Finite State Systems, International Workshop, Grenoble, France, volume 407 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer-Verlag, June 1989.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. M. Clarke and E. A. Emerson. Synthesis of synchronization skeletons for branching time temporal logic. In Dexter Kozen, editor, Logic of Programs: Workshop, volume 131 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Yorktown Heights, New York, May 1981. Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Gupta, Z. Yang, P. Ashar, and A. Gupta. SAT-based image computation with application in reachability analysis. In FMCAD 2000, pages 354–371, 2000.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Jhala and K. L. McMillan. Microarchitecture verification by compositional model checking. 2001.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Kuehlmann and F. Krohm. Equivalence checking using cuts and heaps. In Design Automation Conf., pages 263–268, 1997.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. L. McMillan. Symbolic Model Checking. Kluwer, 1993.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. W. Moskewicz, C. F. Madigan, Y. Z., L. Z., and S. Malik. Chaff: Engineering an efficient SAT solver. In Design Automation Conference, pages 530–535, 2001.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. Rudell. Dynamic variable ordering for binary decision diagrams. In Proc. Intl. Conf. on Computer-Aided Design, pages 42–47, 1993.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Sheeran, S. Singh, and G. Stalmarck. Checking safety properties using induction and a sat-solver. In Formal Methods in Computer Aided Design, 2000.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. P. M. Silva and K. A. Sakallah. Grasp-a new search algorithm for satisfiability. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer-Aided Design, November 1996, 1996.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. F. Williams, A. Biere, E. M. Clarke, and A. Gupta. Combining decision diagrams and SAT procedures for efficient symbolic model checking. In Computer Aided Verification, pages 124–138, 2000.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ken L. McMillan
    • 1
  1. 1.Cadence Berkeley LabsUK

Personalised recommendations