Characters + Mark-up = Z Lexis

  • Ian Toyn
  • Susan Stepney
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2272)


The mathematical symbols in Z have caused problems for users and tool builders in the past—precisely what is allowed? ISO Standard Z answers this question. This paper considers the Z notation at the level of the individual characters that make up a specification. For Z authors: it reviews the internationalisation of Z, discusses what characters can be used in forming names, and summarises the changes made to LATEX mark-up in ISO Standard Z. For Z tool builders: it explains the sequence of processing that is prerequisite to the lexing of a Standard Z specification, and considers in detail the processing of LATEX mark-up.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [Arthan]
    R.D. Arthan. The ProofPower web pages.
  2. [Arthan 1995]
    R.D. Arthan. Modularity for Z. docs/, September 1995.
  3. [Ciancarini et al. 1998]_P. Ciancarini, C. Mascolo, and F. Vitali. Visualizing Z notation in HTMLdo cuments. In ZUM’98: The Z Formal Specification Notation, LNCS 1493, pages 81–95. Springer, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [Germán et al. 1994]_D.M. Germán, D. Cowan, and A. Ryman. Comments on the Z Interchange Format of the Z Base Standard Version 1.0., 1994.
  5. [Grieskamp]
    W. Grieskamp. The Zeta web pages. [ISO-ASCII] ISO/IEC 646:1991. Information Technology—ISO 7-bit Coded Character Set for Information Interchange 3rd edition.
  6. [King 1990]
    P. King. Printing Z and Object-Z LATEX documents. University of Queensland, 1990.Google Scholar
  7. [Lamport 1994]
    L. Lamport. LATEX: A Document Preparation System—User’s Guide and Reference Manual, 2nd edition. Addison-Wesley, 1994.Google Scholar
  8. [Saaltink 1997]
    M. Saaltink. The Z/EVES system. In ZUM’97: The Z Formal Specification Notation, LNCS 1212, pages 72–85. Springer, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [Spivey 1992a]
    J.M. Spivey. The f UZZ manual, 2nd edition. Computer Science Consultancy, 1992.Google Scholar
  10. [Spivey 1992b]
    J.M. Spivey. The Z Notation: A Reference Manual, 2nd edition. Prentice Hall, 1992.Google Scholar
  11. [Stepney]
    S. Stepney. Formaliser Home Page.
  12. [Toyn]
  13. [Toyn et al. 2000]_I. Toyn, S.H. Valentine, and D.A. Duffy. On mutually recursive free types in Z. In ZB2000: International Conference of B and Z Users, LNCS 1878, pages 59–74. Springer, 2000.Google Scholar
  14. [Toyn 1998]
    I. Toyn. Innovations in the notation of Standard Z. In ZUM’98: The Z Formal Specification Notation, LNCS 1493, pages 193–213. Springer, September 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [Unicode 2001]
    The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 3.1, May 2001.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian Toyn
    • 1
  • Susan Stepney
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of YorkHeslingtonUK
  2. 2.Logica UK LtdCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations